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iran revolution

iran revolution

I a ia Revolu io

Impe ial S a e of I a

The I a ia Revolu io (Pe sia : انقلاب ایران, oma ized: E qelâb-e I â , p o ou ced ʔeɴɢeˌlɒːbe ʔiːɾɒː ), also k ow as he Islamic Revolu io (Pe sia : انقلاب اسلامی, oma ized: E qelâb-e Eslâmī)4 was a se ies of eve s ha culmi a ed i he ove h ow of he Pahlavi dy as y u de Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, a d he eplaceme of his gove me wi h a Islamic epublic u de he ule of Aya ollah Ruhollah Khomei i, a leade of o e of he fac io s i he evol .5 The evolu io was suppo ed by va ious lef is a d Islamis o ga iza io s.6

Af e he 1953 I a ia coup d'é a , Pahlavi had alig ed wi h he U i ed S a es a d he Wes e Bloc o ule mo e fi mly as a au ho i a ia mo a ch. He elied heavily o suppo f om he U i ed S a es o hold o o powe which he held fo a fu he 26 yea s.78 This ledvague o he 1963 Whi e Revolu io a d he a es a d exile of Aya ollah Khomei i i 1964. Amids massive e sio s be wee Khomei i a d he Shah, demo s a io s bega i Oc obe 1977, developi g i o a campaig of civil esis a ce ha i cluded bo h secula a d eligious eleme s.91011 The p o es s apidly i e sified i 1978 as a esul of he bu i g of Rex Ci ema which was see as he igge of he evolu io ,1213 a d be wee Augus a d Decembe ha yea , s ikes a d demo s a io s pa alyzed he cou y.

O 16 Ja ua y 1979, he Shah lef I a a d we i o exile14 as he las Pe sia mo a ch, leavi g his du ies o a ege cy cou cil a d Shapou Bakh ia , who was a opposi io -based p ime mi is e . Aya ollah Khomei i was i vi ed back o I a by he gove me ,715 a d e u ed o Teh a o a g ee i g by seve al housa d I a ia s.16 The oyal eig collapsed sho ly af e , o 11 Feb ua y, whe gue illas a d ebel oops ove whelmed oops loyal o he Shah i a med s ee figh i g, b i gi g Khomei i o official powe .1718 I a ia people vo ed i a a io al efe e dum o become a Islamic epublic o 1 Ap il 197919 a d o fo mula e a d app ove a ew heoc a ic- epublica co s i u io 9102021 whe eby Khomei i became sup eme leade of he cou y i Decembe 1979.

The evolu io was u usual fo he su p ise i c ea ed h oughou he wo ld.22 I lacked ma y of he cus oma y causes of evolu io (defea i wa , a fi a cial c isis, peasa ebellio , o disg u led mili a y);23 occu ed i a a io ha was expe ie ci g ela ive p ospe i y;721 p oduced p ofou d cha ge a g ea speed;24 was massively popula ; esul ed i he exile of ma y I a ia s;25 a d eplaced a p o-Wes e secula 26 au ho i a ia mo a chy7 wi h a a i-Wes e heoc acy7202127 based o he co cep of velaya -e faqih (o Gua dia ship of he Islamic Ju is s) s addli g be wee au ho i a ia ism a d o ali a ia ism.28 I addi io o hese, he evolu io sough a egio -wide Shia evival, a d a up oo i g of he exis e domi a A ab Su i hegemo y i he Middle Eas .29

Co e s

Backg ou d (1891–1977)edi

Reaso s adva ced fo he evolu io a d i s populis , a io alis , a d la e Shia Islamic cha ac e i clude:

The Shah's egime was see as a opp essive, b u al,3435 co up , a d lavish egime by some of he socie y's classes a ha ime.3436 I also suffe ed f om some basic fu c io al failu es ha b ough eco omic bo le ecks, sho ages, a d i fla io .37 The Shah was pe ceived by ma y as beholde o—if o a puppe of—a o -Muslim Wes e powe (i.e., he U i ed S a es)3839 whose cul u e was affec i g ha of I a . A he same ime, suppo fo he Shah may have wa ed amo g Wes e poli icia s a d media—especially u de he admi is a io of U.S. P eside Jimmy Ca e —as a esul of he Shah's suppo fo OPEC pe oleum p ice i c eases ea lie i he decade.40 Whe P eside Ca e e ac ed a huma - igh s policy which said ha cou ies guil y of huma - igh s viola io s would be dep ived of Ame ica a ms o aid, his helped give some I a ia s he cou age o pos ope le e s a d pe i io s i he hope ha he ep essio by he gove me migh subside.41

The evolu io ha subs i u ed he mo a chy of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi wi h Islam a d Khomei i is c edi ed i pa o he sp ead of he Shi'a ve sio of he Islamic evival. I esis ed wes e iza io a d saw Aya ollah Khomei i as followi g i he foo s eps of he Shi'a Imam Husay ib Ali, wi h he Shah playi g he ole of Husay 's foe, he ha ed y a Yazid I.42 O he fac o s i clude he u de es ima io of Khomei i's Islamis moveme by bo h he Shah's eig —who co side ed hem a mi o h ea compa ed o he Ma xis s a d Islamic socialis s434445—a d by he secula is oppo e s of he gove me —who hough he Khomei is s could be sideli ed.46

Tobacco P o es (1891)edi

A he e d of he 19 h ce u y, he Shi'a cle gy (ulama) had a sig ifica i flue ce o I a ia socie y. The cle gy fi s showed i self o be a powe ful poli ical fo ce i opposi io o he mo a chy wi h he 1891 Tobacco P o es . O 20 Ma ch 1890, he lo g-s a di g I a ia mo a ch Nasi al-Di Shah g a ed a co cessio o B i ish Majo G. F. Talbo fo a full mo opoly ove he p oduc io , sale, a d expo of obacco fo 50 yea s.47 A he ime, he Pe sia obacco i dus y employed ove 200,000 people, so he co cessio ep ese ed a majo blow o Pe sia fa me s a d bazaa is whose livelihoods we e la gely depe de o he luc a ive obacco busi ess.48 The boyco s a d p o es s agai s i we e widesp ead a d ex e sive as esul of Mi za Hasa Shi azi's fa wa (judicial dec ee).49 Wi hi 2 yea s, Nasi al-Di Shah fou d himself powe less o s op he popula moveme a d ca celled he co cessio .50

The Tobacco P o es was he fi s sig ifica I a ia esis a ce agai s he Shah a d fo eig i e es s, eveali g he powe of he people a d he ulama i flue ce amo g hem.47

Pe sia Co s i u io al Revolu io (1905–1911)edi

The g owi g dissa isfac io co i ued u il he Co s i u io al Revolu io of 1905–1911. The evolu io led o he es ablishme of a pa liame , he Na io al Co sul a ive Assembly (also k ow as he Majlis), a d app oval of he fi s co s i u io . Al hough he co s i u io al evolu io was successful i weake i g he au oc acy of he Qaja egime, i failed o p ovide a powe ful al e a ive gove me . The efo e, i he decades followi g he es ablishme of he ew pa liame , a umbe of c i ical eve s ook place. Ma y of hese eve s ca be viewed as a co i ua io of he s uggle be wee he co s i u io alis s a d he Shahs of Pe sia, ma y of whom we e backed by fo eig powe s agai s he pa liame .

Reza Shah (1921–1935)edi

I secu i y a d chaos c ea ed af e he Co s i u io al Revolu io led o he ise of Ge e al Reza Kha , he comma de of he eli e Pe sia Cossack B igade who seized powe i a coup d'é a i Feb ua y 1921. He es ablished a co s i u io al mo a chy, deposi g he las Qaja Shah, Ahmed Shah, i 1925 a d bei g desig a ed mo a ch by he Na io al Assembly, o be k ow he cefo h as Reza Shah, fou de of he Pahlavi dy as y.

The e we e widesp ead social, eco omic, a d poli ical efo ms i oduced du i g his eig , a umbe of which led o public disco e ha would p ovide he ci cums a ces fo he I a ia Revolu io . Pa icula ly co ove sial was he eplaceme of Islamic laws wi h Wes e o es a d he fo biddi g of adi io al Islamic clo hi g, sepa a io of he **7**es, a d veili g of wome 's faces wi h he iqab.51 Police fo cibly emoved a d o e chado s off wome who esis ed his ba o he public hijab.

I 1935, doze s we e killed a d hu d eds i ju ed i he Goha shad Mosque ebellio .525354 O he o he ha d, du i g he ea ly ise of Reza Shah, Abdul-Ka im Ha'e i Yazdi fou ded he Qom Semi a y a d c ea ed impo a cha ges i semi a ies. Howeve , he would avoid e e i g i o poli ical issues, as did o he eligious leade s who followed him. He ce, o widesp ead a i-gove me a emp s we e o ga ized by cle gy du i g he ule of Reza Shah. Howeve , he fu u e Aya ollah Khomei i was a s ude of Sheikh Abdul Ka im Ha'e i.55

Mosaddegh a d The A glo-I a ia Oil Compa y (1951–1952)edi

F om 1901 o , he A glo-Pe sia Oil Compa y ( e amed he A glo-I a ia Oil Compa y i 1931), a B i ish oil compa y, e joyed a mo opoly o sale a d p oduc io of I a ia oil. I was he mos p ofi able B i ish busi ess i he wo ld.56 Mos I a ia s lived i pove y while he weal h ge e a ed f om I a ia oil played a decisive ole i mai ai i g B i ai a he op of he wo ld. I 1951, I a ia P ime Mi is e Mohammad Mosaddegh pledged o h ow he compa y ou of I a , eclaim he pe oleum ese ves a d f ee I a f om fo eig powe s.

I 1952, Mosaddegh a io alized he A glo-I a ia Oil Compa y a d became a a io al he o. The B i ish, howeve , we e ou aged a d accused him of s eali g. The B i ish u successfully sough pu ishme f om he Wo ld Cou a d he U i ed Na io s, se wa ships o he Pe sia Gulf, a d fi ally imposed a c ushi g emba go. Mosaddegh was u moved by B i ai 's campaig agai s him. O e Eu opea ewspape , he F a kfu e Neue P esse, epo ed ha Mosaddegh would a he be f ied i Pe sia oil ha make he sligh es co cessio o he B i ish. The B i ish co side ed a a med i vasio , bu UK P ime Mi is e Wi s o Chu chill decided o a coup af e bei g efused Ame ica mili a y suppo by U.S. P eside Ha y S. T uma , who sympa hized wi h a io alis moveme s like Mosaddegh's a d had o hi g bu co emp fo old-s yle impe ialis s like hose who a he A glo-I a ia Oil Compa y. Mosaddegh, howeve , lea ed of Chu chill's pla s a d o de ed he B i ish embassy o be closed i Oc obe 1952, fo ci g all B i ish diploma s a d age s o leave he cou y.

Al hough he B i ish we e i i ially u ed dow i hei eques fo Ame ica suppo by P eside T uma , he elec io of Dwigh D. Eise howe as U.S. p eside i Novembe 1952 cha ged he Ame ica s a ce owa d he co flic . O 20 Ja ua y 1953, U.S. Sec e a y of S a e Joh Fos e Dulles a d his b o he , C.I.A. Di ec o Alle Dulles, old hei B i ish cou e pa s ha hey we e eady o move agai s Mosaddegh. I hei eyes, a y cou y o decisively allied wi h he U i ed S a es was a po e ial e emy. I a had imme se oil weal h, a lo g bo de wi h he Sovie U io , a d a a io alis p ime mi is e . The p ospec of a fall i o commu ism a d a seco d Chi a (af e Mao Zedo g wo he Chi ese Civil Wa ) e ified he Dulles b o he s. Ope a io Ajax was bo , i which he o ly democ a ic gove me I a eve had was deposed.57

I a ia coup d'é a (1953)edi

I 1941, a i vasio of allied B i ish a d Sovie oops deposed Reza Shah, who was co side ed f ie dly o Nazi Ge ma y, a d i s alled his so , Mohammad Reza Pahlavi as Shah. I 1953, followi g he a io aliza io of he I a ia oil i dus y by he democ a ically elec ed p ime mi is e Mohammad Mossadegh, Ame ica a d B i ish fo ces i s i u ed a highly effec ive emba go of I a ia oil, a d cove ly des abilized he legisla u e a d helped e u co ol o hei ally, Pahlavi. The Ame ica Ope a io Ajax, o ches a ed by he CIA, was aided by he B i ish MI6 i o ga izi g a mili a y coup d'é a o ous Mossadegh. The Shah fled o I aly whe he i i ial coup a emp o Augus 15 failed, bu e u ed af e a successful seco d a emp o Augus 19.58

Pahlavi mai ai ed a close ela io ship wi h he U.S. gove me , as bo h egimes sha ed opposi io o he expa sio of he Sovie U io , I a 's powe ful o he eighbo . Like his fa he , he Shah's gove me was k ow fo i s au oc acy, i s focus o mode iza io a d Wes e iza io , a d fo i s dis ega d fo eligiousci a io eeded a d democ a ic measu es i I a 's co s i u io . Lef is a d Islamis g oups a acked his gove me (of e f om ou side I a as hey we e supp essed wi hi ) fo viola i g he I a ia co s i u io , poli ical co up io , a d he poli ical opp essio , o u e, a d killi gs, by he SAVAK sec e police.

Whi e Revolu io (1963–1978)edi

The Whi e Revolu io was a fa - eachi g se ies of efo ms i I a lau ched i 1963 by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi a d las ed u il 1978. Mohammad Reza Shah's efo m p og am was buil especially o weake hose classes ha suppo ed he adi io al sys em. I co sis ed of seve al eleme s i cludi g la d efo m; sales of some s a e-ow ed fac o ies o fi a ce he la d efo m; he e f a chiseme of wome ; a io aliza io of fo es s a d pas u es; fo ma io of a li e acy co ps; a d he i s i u io of p ofi -sha i g schemes fo wo ke s i i dus y.59

The Shah adve ised he Whi e Revolu io as a s ep owa ds wes e iza io ,60 a d i was a way fo him o legi imize he Pahlavi dy as y. Pa of he easo fo lau chi g he Whi e Revolu io was ha he Shah hoped o ge id of he i flue ce of la dlo ds a d o c ea e a ew base of suppo amo g he peasa s a d wo ki g class.6162 Thus, he Whi e Revolu io i I a was a a emp o i oduce efo m f om above a d p ese ve adi io al powe pa e s. Th ough la d efo m, he esse ce of he Whi e Revolu io , he Shah hoped o ally himself wi h he peasa y i he cou yside, a d hoped o seve hei ies wi h he a is oc acy i he ci y.

Wha he Shah did o expec , howeve , was ha he Whi e Revolu io led o ew social e sio s ha helped c ea e ma y of he p oblems he Shah had bee yi g o avoid. The Shah's efo ms mo e ha quad upled he combi ed size of he wo classes ha had posed he mos challe ges o his mo a chy i he pas — he i ellige sia a d he u ba wo ki g class. Thei ese me owa ds he Shah also g ew as hey we e ow s ipped of o ga iza io s ha had ep ese ed hem i he pas , such as poli ical pa ies, p ofessio al associa io s, ade u io s, a d i depe de ewspape s. The la d efo m, i s ead of allyi g he peasa s wi h he gove me , p oduced la ge umbe s of i depe de fa me s a d la dless labo e s who became loose poli ical ca o s, wi h o feeli g of loyal y o he Shah. Ma y of he masses fel ese me owa ds he i c easi gly co up gove me ; hei loyal y o he cle gy, who we e see as mo e co ce ed wi h he fa e of he populace, emai ed co sis e o i c eased. As E va d Ab ahamia poi ed ou : The Whi e Revolu io had bee desig ed o p eemp a Red Revolu io . I s ead, i paved he way fo a Islamic Revolu io .63 The Whi e Revolu io 's eco omic ickle-dow s a egy also did o wo k as i e ded. I heo y, oil mo ey fu eled o he eli e was supposed o be used o c ea e jobs a d fac o ies, eve ually dis ibu i g he mo ey, bu i s ead he weal h e ded o ge s uck a he op a d co ce a ed i he ha ds of he ve y few.64

Rise a d exile of Aya ollah Khomei i (1963–p ese )edi

The pos - evolu io a y leade —Shia cle ic Aya ollah Ruhollah Khomei i—fi s came o poli ical p omi e ce i 1963 whe he led opposi io o he Shah a d his Whi e Revolu io . Khomei i was a es ed i 1963 af e decla i g he Shah a w e ched mise able ma who had emba ked o he pa h owa d des uc io of Islam i I a .65 Th ee days of majo io s h oughou I a followed, wi h 15,000 dead f om police fi e as epo ed by opposi io sou ces.66 Howeve , a i- evolu io a y sou ces co jec u ed ha jus 32 we e killed.67

Khomei i was eleased af e eigh mo hs of house a es a d co i ued his agi a io , co dem i g I a 's close coope a io wi h Is ael a d i s capi ula io s, o ex e sio of diploma ic immu i y, o Ame ica gove me pe so el i I a . I Novembe 1964, Khomei i was e-a es ed a d se i o exile whe e he emai ed fo 15 yea s (mos ly i Najaf, I aq), u il he evolu io .

Ideology of he I a ia Revolu io edi

I his i e im pe iod of disaffec ed calm,68 he buddi g I a ia evival bega o u de mi e he idea of Wes e iza io as p og ess ha was he basis of he Shah's secula eig , a d o fo m he ideology of he 1979 evolu io : Jalal Al-e-Ahmad's idea of Gha bzadegi— ha Wes e cul u e was a plague o a i oxica io o be elimi a ed;69 Ali Sha ia i's visio of Islam as he o e ue libe a o of he Thi d Wo ld f om opp essive colo ialism, eo-colo ialism, a d capi alism;70 a d Mo eza Mo ahha i's popula ized e elli gs of he Shia fai h all sp ead a d gai ed lis e e s, eade s a d suppo e s.69

Mos impo a ly, Khomei i p eached ha evol , a d especially ma y dom, agai s i jus ice a d y a y was pa of Shia Islam,71 a d ha Muslims should ejec he i flue ce of bo h libe al capi alism a d commu ism, ideas ha i spi ed he evolu io a y sloga Nei he Eas , o Wes – Islamic Republic!

Away f om public view, Khomei i developed he ideology of velaya -e faqih (gua dia ship of he ju is ) as gove me , ha Muslims—i fac eve yo e— equi ed gua dia ship, i he fo m of ule o supe visio by he leadi g Islamic ju is o ju is s.72 Such ule was ul ima ely mo e ecessa y eve ha p aye a d fas i g i Islam,No e 2 as i would p o ec Islam f om devia io f om adi io al sha ia law a d i so doi g elimi a e pove y, i jus ice, a d he plu de i g of Muslim la d by fo eig o -believe s.73

This idea of ule by Islamic ju is s was sp ead h ough his book Islamic Gove me , mosque se mo s, a d smuggled casse e speeches by Khomei i7475 amo g his opposi io e wo k of s ude s ( alabeh), ex-s ude s (able cle ics such as Mo eza Mo ahha i, Mohammad Behesh i, Mohammad-Javad Baho a , Akba Hashemi Rafsa ja i, a d Mohammad Mofa eh), a d adi io al busi essme (bazaa i) i side I a .74

Opposi io g oups a d o ga iza io sedi

O he opposi io g oups i cluded co s i u io alis libe als— he democ a ic, efo mis Islamic F eedom Moveme of I a , headed by Mehdi Baza ga , a d he mo e secula Na io al F o . They we e based i he u ba middle class, a d wa ed he Shah o adhe e o he I a ia Co s i u io of 1906 a he ha o eplace him wi h a heoc acy,77 bu lacked he cohesio a d o ga iza io of Khomei i's fo ces.78

Commu is g oups—p ima ily he Tudeh Pa y of I a a d he Fedaia gue illasNo e 3—had bee weake ed co side ably by gove me ep essio . Despi e his he gue illas did help play a impo a pa i he fi al Feb ua y 1979 ove h ow80 delive i g he egime i s coup de g ace.81 The mos powe ful gue illa g oup— he People's Mujahedi —was lef is Islamis a d opposed he i flue ce of he cle gy as eac io a y.

Some impo a cle gy did o follow Khomei i's lead. Popula aya ollah Mahmoud Talegha i suppo ed he lef , while pe haps he mos se io a d i flue ial aya ollah i I a —Mohammad Kazem Sha ia mada i—fi s emai ed aloof f om poli ics a d he came ou i suppo of a democ a ic evolu io .82

Khomei i wo ked o u i e his opposi io behi d him (excep fo he u wa ed 'a heis ic Ma xis s'),983 focusi g o he socio-eco omic p oblems of he Shah's gove me (co up io a d u equal i come a d developme ),984 while avoidi g specifics amo g he public ha migh divide he fac io s85—pa icula ly his pla fo cle ical ule, which he believed mos I a ia s had become p ejudiced agai s as a esul of p opaga da campaig by Wes e impe ialis s.No e 486

I he pos -Shah e a, some evolu io a ies who clashed wi h his heoc acy a d we e supp essed by his moveme complai ed of decep io ,84 bu i he mea ime a i-Shah u i y was mai ai ed.87

1970–1977edi

Seve al eve s i he 1970s se he s age fo he 1979 evolu io .

The 1971 2,500-yea celeb a io of he Pe sia Empi e a Pe sepolis, o ga ized by he gove me , was a acked fo i s ex avaga ce. As he fo eig e s eveled o d i k fo bidde by Islam, I a ia s we e o o ly excluded f om he fes ivi ies, some we e s a vi g.88 Five yea s la e , he Shah a ge ed pious I a ia Muslims by cha gi g he fi s yea of he I a ia sola cale da f om he Islamic hij i o he asce sio o he h o e by Cy us he G ea . I a jumped ove igh f om he Muslim yea 1355 o he oyalis yea 2535.89

The oil boom of he 1970s p oduced a ala mi g i c ease i i fla io , was e a d a accele a i g gap be wee he ich a d poo , he ci y a d he cou y,90 alo g wi h he p ese ce of e s of housa ds of u popula skilled fo eig wo ke s. Ma y I a ia s we e also a ge ed by he fac ha he Shah's family was he fo emos be eficia y of he i come ge e a ed by oil, a d he li e be wee s a e ea i gs a d family ea i gs blu ed. By 1976, he Shah had accumula ed upwa d of $1 billio f om oil eve ue; his family – i cludi g 63 p i ces a d p i cesses had accumula ed be wee $5 a d $20 billio ; a d he family fou da io co olled app oxima ely $3 billio .91 By mid-1977 eco omic aus e i y measu es o figh i fla io disp opo io a ely affec ed he housa ds of poo a d u skilled male mig a s se li g i he ci ies wo ki g i he co s uc io i dus y. Cul u ally a d eligiously co se va ive,92 ma y we o o fo m he co e of he evolu io 's demo s a o s a d ma y s.93

All I a ia s we e equi ed o joi a d pay dues o a ew poli ical pa y, he Ḥezb-e Ras akhiz pa y—all o he pa ies we e ba ed.94 Tha pa y's a emp o figh i fla io wi h populis a i-p ofi ee i g campaig s—fi i g a d jaili g me cha s fo high p ices – a ge ed a d poli icized me cha s while fueli g black ma ke s.95

I 1977 he Shah espo ded o he poli e emi de of he impo a ce of poli ical igh s by he ew Ame ica p eside , Jimmy Ca e , by g a i g am es y o some p iso e s a d allowi g he Red C oss o visi p iso s. Th ough 1977 libe al opposi io fo med o ga iza io s a d issued ope le e s de ou ci g he gove me .96 Agai s his backg ou d a fi s c ucial ma ifes a io of public exp essio of social disco e a d poli ical p o es agai s he egime ook place i Oc obe 1977, whe he Ge ma -I a ia Cul u al Associa io i Teh a hos ed a se ies of li e a u e eadi g sessio s, o ga ized by he ewly evived I a ia W i e s Associa io a d he Ge ma Goe he-I s i u e. I hese Te Nigh s (Dah Shab) 57 of I a 's mos p omi e poe s a d w i e s ead hei wo ks o housa ds of lis e e s. They dema ded he e d of ce so ship a d claimed he f eedom of exp essio .97

Also i 1977, he popula a d i flue ial mode is Islamis heo is Ali Sha ia i died u de mys e ious ci cums a ces. This bo h a ge ed his followe s, who co side ed him a ma y a he ha ds of SAVAK, a d emoved a po e ial evolu io a y ival o Khomei i. Fi ally, i Oc obe Khomei i's so Mos afa died of a alleged hea a ack, a d his dea h was also blamed o SAVAK. A subseque memo ial se vice fo Mos afa i Teh a pu Khomei i back i he spo ligh .9899

Ou b eakedi

By 1977, he Shah's policy of poli ical libe aliza io was u de way. Secula oppo e s of he Shah bega o mee i sec e o de ou ce he gove me .100101 Led by he lef is i ellec ual Saeed Sol a pou , he I a ia W i e s Associa io me a he Goe he I s i u e i Teh a o ead a i-gove me poe y.100 Ali Sha ia i's dea h i he U i ed Ki gdom sho ly af e led o a o he public demo s a io , wi h he opposi io accusi g he Shah of mu de i g him.15100

The chai of eve s bega wi h he dea h of Mos afa Khomei i, chief aide a d eldes so of Ruhollah Khomei i. He mys e iously died a mid igh o 23 Oc obe 1977 i Najaf, I aq. SAVAK a d he I aqi gove me decla ed hea a ack as he cause of dea h, hough ma y believed his dea h was a ibu ed o SAVAK.102 Khomei i emai ed sile af e he i cide , while i I a wi h he sp ead of he ews came a wave of p o es a d mou i g ce emo ies i seve al ci ies.103104 The mou i g of Mos afa was give a poli ical cas by Khomei i's poli ical c ede ials, hei e du i g opposi io o he mo a chy a d hei exile. This dime sio of he ce emo ies we beyo d he eligious c ede ials of he family.20

App oachi g evolu io (1978)edi

Begi i g of p o es s (Ja ua y)edi

O 7 Ja ua y 1978, a a icle i led I a a d Red a d Black Colo iza io appea ed i he a io al daily E ela'a ewspape . W i e u de a pseudo ym by a gove me age , i de ou ced Khomei i as a B i ish age a d a mad I dia poe co spi i g o sell ou I a o eo-colo ialis s a d commu is s.715

Upo he publishi g of he a icle, eligious semi a y s ude s i he ci y of Qom, a ge ed ove he i sul o Khomei i, clashed wi h police. Acco di g o he gove me , 2 we e killed i he clash; acco di g o he opposi io , 70 we e killed a d ove 500 we e i ju ed. Likewise, he e a e disc epa cies be wee casual y figu es i diffe e sou ces.715101105106107

Co solida io of he opposi io (Feb ua y–Ma ch)edi

Acco di g o he Shi'i e cus oms, memo ial se vices (chehelom) a e held 40 days af e a pe so 's dea h.108 E cou aged by Khomei i (who decla ed ha he blood of ma y s mus wa e he ee of Islam),101 adicals p essu ed he mosques a d mode a e cle gy o commemo a e he dea hs of he s ude s, a d used he occasio o ge e a e p o es s.109 The i fo mal e wo k of mosques a d bazaa s, which fo yea s had bee used o ca y ou eligious eve s, i c easi gly became co solida ed as a coo di a ed p o es o ga iza io .20108110111

O 18 Feb ua y, 40 days af e Qom clashes, demo s a io s b oke ou i va ious diffe e ci ies.112 The la ges was i Tab iz, which desce ded i o a full-scale io . Wes e a d gove me symbols such as ci emas, ba s, s a e-ow ed ba ks, a d police s a io s we e se ablaze.108 U i s of Impe ial I a ia A my we e deployed o he ci y o es o e o de , a d he dea h oll, acco di g o gove me was 6,113 while Khomei i claimed hu d eds we e ma y ed.10100101114

Fo y days la e , o 29 Ma ch, demo s a io s we e o ga ized i a leas 55 ci ies, i cludi g Teh a .108 I a i c easi gly p edic able pa e , deadly io s b oke ou i majo ci ies,108115 a d agai 40 days la e , o 10 May. I led o a i cide i which a my comma dos ope ed fi e o Aya ollah Sha ia mada i's house, killi g o e of his s ude s. Sha ia mada i immedia ely made a public a ou ceme decla i g his suppo fo a co s i u io al gove me , a d a e u o he policies of he 1906 Co s i u io .10101108

Gove me eac io edi

The Shah was ake comple ely by su p ise by he p o es s a d,1021 o make ma e s wo se, he of e became i decisive du i g imes of c isis;7 vi ually eve y majo decisio he would make backfi ed o his gove me a d fu he i flamed he evolu io a ies.7

The Shah decided o co i ue o his pla of libe aliza io a d o ego ia e a he ha o use fo ce agai s he s ill- asce p o es moveme :108109110115 he p omised ha fully democ a ic elec io s fo he Majlis would be held i 1979; ce so ship was elaxed; a esolu io was d af ed o help educe co up io wi hi he oyal family a d he gove me ;110 a d p o es e s we e ied i civilia cou s a he ha by mili a y cou -ma ials a d we e quickly eleased.112115

I a 's secu i y fo ces had o eceived a y io -co ol ai i g o equipme si ce 1963.113 As esul , police fo ces we e u able o co ol demo s a io s, hus he a my was f eque ly deployed.115 Soldie s we e i s uc ed o o use deadly fo ce, ye he e we e i s a ces of i expe ie ced soldie s eac i g excessively, i flami g he viole ce wi hou cowi g he opposi io , a d eceivi g official co dem a io f om he Shah.113 The Ca e admi is a io i he US also efused o sell o -le hal ea gas a d ubbe bulle s o I a .101116

As ea ly as he Feb ua y io s i Tab iz, he Shah fi ed all SAVAK officials i he ci y as a co cessio o he opposi io , a d soo bega o dismiss civil se va s a d gove me officials whom he fel he public blamed.1021115 I he fi s a io al co cessio , he eplaced he ha dli e SAVAK chief Ge e al Nema ollah Nassi i wi h he mo e mode a e Ge e al Nasse Moghaddam.7115 The gove me also ego ia ed wi h mode a e eligious leade s such as Sha ia mada i, apologizi g o him fo he aid o his house.15

Ea ly summe (Ju e)edi

By summe , he p o es s had s ag a ed, emai i g a a s eady a e fo fou mo hs, wi h abou 10,000 pa icipa s i each majo ci y—wi h he excep io of Isfaha , whe e p o es s we e la ge , a d Teh a , whe e hey we e smalle —p o es i g eve y 40 days. This amou ed o a small mi o i y of he mo e ha 15 millio adul s i I a .117

Agai s he wishes of Khomei i, Sha ia mada i called fo 17 Ju e mou i g p o es s o be ca ied ou as a o e-day s ay.108 Al hough e sio s emai ed i he milieu, he Shah's policy appea ed o have wo ked, leadi g Amuzega o decla e ha he c isis is ove . A CIA a alysis co cluded ha I a is o i a evolu io a y o eve a p e- evolu io a y si ua io .118 These a d la e eve s i I a a e f eque ly ci ed as o e of he mos co seque ial s a egic su p ises ha he U i ed S a es has expe ie ced si ce he CIA was es ablished i 1947.119

As a sig of easi g of gove me es ic io s, h ee p omi e opposi io leade s f om he secula Na io al F o —Ka im Sa jabi, Shahpou Bakh ia , a d Da iush Fo ouha —we e allowed o pe a ope le e o he Shah dema di g ha he eig acco di g o he co s i u io of I a .10101110

Re ewed p o es s (Aug–Sep )edi

Appoi me of Jafa Sha if-Emami as p ime mi is e (11 Aug)edi

By Augus , he p o es s had kicked…i o high gea ,120 a d he umbe of demo s a o s mush oomed o hu d eds of housa ds.117 I a a emp o dampe i fla io , he Amuzega admi is a io cu spe di g a d educed busi ess. Howeve , he cu backs led o a sha p ise i layoffs—pa icula ly amo g you g, u skilled, male wo ke s livi g i he wo ki g-class dis ic s. By summe 1978, he wo ki g class joi ed he s ee p o es s i massive umbe s.114 I addi io , i was he Islamic holy mo h of Ramada , b i gi g a se se of i c eased eligiosi y amo g ma y people.108

A se ies of escala i g p o es s b oke ou i majo ci ies, a d deadly io s b oke ou i Isfaha whe e p o es e s fough fo he elease of Aya ollah Jalaluddi Tahe i.121108 Ma ial law was decla ed i he ci y o 11 Augus as symbols of Wes e cul u e a d gove me buildi gs we e bu ed, a d a bus full of Ame ica wo ke s was bombed.108110 Due o his failu e o s op he p o es s, P ime Mi is e Amuzega offe ed his esig a io .

The Shah i c easi gly fel ha he was losi g co ol of he si ua io a d hoped o egai i h ough comple e appeaseme .10101 He decided o appoi Jafa Sha if-Emami o he pos of p ime mi is e , himself a ve e a p ime mi is e . Emami was chose due o his family ies o he cle gy, al hough he had a epu a io of co up io du i g his p evious p emie ship.715

U de he Shah's guida ce, Sha if-Emami effec ively bega a policy of appeasi g he opposi io 's dema ds befo e hey eve made hem.15 The gove me abolished he Ras akhiz Pa y, legalized all poli ical pa ies a d eleased poli ical p iso e s, i c eased f eedom of exp essio , cu ailed SAVAK's au ho i y a d dismissed 34 of i s comma de s,110 closed dow casi os a d igh clubs, a d abolished he impe ial cale da . The gove me also bega o p osecu e co up gove me a d oyal family membe s. Sha if-Emami e e ed i o ego ia io s wi h Aya ollah Sha ia mada i a d Na io al F o leade Ka im Sa jabi i o de o help o ga ize fu u e elec io s.110 Ce so ship was effec ively e mi a ed, a d he ewspape s bega epo i g heavily o demo s a io s, of e highly c i ically a d ega ively of he Shah. The Majlis (Pa liame ) also bega issui g esolu io s agai s he gove me .7

Ci ema Rex fi e (19 Aug)edi

O 19 Augus , i he sou hwes e ci y of Abada , fou a so is s ba ed he doo of he Ci ema Rex movie hea e a d se i o fi e. I wha would be he la ges e o is a ack i his o y p io o he Sep embe 11 a acks i he US i 2001,122 422 people i side he hea e we e bu ed o dea h. Khomei i immedia ely blamed he Shah a d SAVAK fo se i g he fi e, a d,10101123 due o he pe vasive evolu io a y a mosphe e, he public also blamed he Shah fo s a i g he fi e, despi e he gove me 's i sis e ce ha hey we e u i volved. Te s of housa ds of people ook o he s ee s shou i g Bu he Shah! a d The Shah is he guil y o e!112

Af e he evolu io , ma y claimed ha Islamis mili a s had s a ed he fi e.122124125126127128 Af e he Islamic Republic gove me execu ed a police office fo he ac , a ma claimi g o be he lo e su vivi g a so is claimed he was espo sible fo s a i g he fi e.129 Af e fo ci g he esig a io of he p esidi g judges i a a emp o hampe he i ves iga io , he ew gove me fi ally execu ed Hossei Talakhzadeh fo se i g he fi e o he Shah's o de s, despi e his i sis e ce ha he did i o his ow acco d as a ul ima e sac ifice fo he evolu io a y cause.124129

Decla a io of ma ial law a d he Jaleh Squa e Massac e (4 Sep )edi

The 4 h of Sep embe ma ked Eid al-Fi , he holiday celeb a i g he e d of he mo h of Ramada . A pe mi fo a ope -ai p aye was g a ed, i which 200,000–500,000 people a e ded.108 I s ead, he cle gy di ec ed he c owd o a la ge ma ch h ough he ce e of Teh a , whils he Shah epo edly wa ched he ma ch f om his helicop e , u e ved, a d co fused.108 A few days la e , eve la ge p o es s ook place, a d, fo he fi s ime, p o es e s called fo Khomei i's e u a d he es ablishme of a Islamic epublic.108

A mid igh o 8 Sep embe , he Shah decla ed ma ial law i Teh a a d 11 o he majo ci ies h oughou he cou y. All s ee demo s a io s we e ba ed, a d a igh - ime cu few was es ablished. Teh a 's ma ial law comma de was Ge e al Gholam-Ali Oveissi, who was k ow fo his seve i y agai s oppo e s.10715100101114122 Howeve , he Shah made clea ha o ce ma ial law was lif ed, he i e ded o co i ue wi h he libe aliza io . He e ai ed Sha if-Emami's civilia gove me , hopi g ha p o es e s would avoid aki g he s ee s.101109110

Howeve , 5,000 p o es e s ook o he s ee s, ei he i defia ce o because hey had missed hea i g he decla a io , a d faced off wi h soldie s a Jaleh Squa e.1020101 Af e he fi i g of wa i g sho s failed o dispe se he c owd, oops fi ed di ec ly i o he mob, killi g 64,108 while Ge e al Oveissi claimed ha 30 soldie s we e killed by a med s ipe s i su ou di g buildi gs.101521101108111123 Addi io al clashes h oughou he day, which would be called Black F iday by he opposi io , b ough he opposi io dea h oll o 89.7114

Reac io s o Black F idayedi

The dea hs shocked he cou y a d damaged a y a emp a eco cilia io be wee he Shah a d he opposi io . Khomei i immedia ely decla ed ha 4,000 i oce p o es e s we e massac ed by Zio is s, which gave him a p e ex o ejec a y fu he comp omise wi h he gove me .

The Shah himself was ho ified by he eve s of Black F iday, a d ha shly c i icized he eve s, hough his did li le o sway public pe cep io of him as bei g espo sible fo he shoo i g.7108113 While ma ial law officially emai ed i effec , he gove me decided o o b eak up a y mo e demo s a io s o s ikes (i effec , ma ial law wi hou he e exac ly bei g ma ial law, acco di g o Sha if-Emami), i s ead co i ui g o ego ia e wi h p o es leade s.110 Co seque ly, p o es ga he i gs of e ook place wi hou a y se ious i e ve io by soldie s.115

Na io wide s ikes (Sep –Nov)edi

O 9 Sep embe , 700 wo ke s a Teh a 's mai oil efi e y we o s ike, a d o 11 Sep embe , he same occu ed a efi e ies i five o he ci ies. O 13 Sep embe , ce al gove me wo ke s i Teh a simul a eously we o s ike.715100

By la e Oc obe , a a io wide ge e al s ike was decla ed, wi h wo ke s i vi ually all majo i dus ies walki g off hei jobs, mos damagi gly i he oil i dus y a d he p i media.20100 Special s ike commi ees we e se up h oughou majo i dus ies o o ga ize a d coo di a e he ac ivi ies.121

The Shah did o a emp o c ack dow o s ike s,110 bu i s ead gave hem ge e ous wage i c eases, a d allowed s ike s who lived i gove me housi g o emai i hei homes.107110 By he begi i g of Novembe , ma y impo a officials i he Shah's gove me we e dema di g f om he Shah fo ceful measu es o b i g he s ike s back o wo k.107100101

Khomei i moves o F a ce (Nov)edi

Hopi g o b eak Khomei i's co ac s wi h he opposi io , he Shah p essu ed he I aqi gove me o expel him f om Najaf. Khomei i lef I aq, i s ead movi g o a house bough by I a ia exiles i Neauphle-le-Châ eau, a village ea Pa is, F a ce. The Shah hoped ha Khomei i would be cu off f om he mosques of Najaf a d be cu off f om he p o es moveme . I s ead, he pla backfi ed badly. Wi h supe io F e ch elepho e a d pos al co ec io s (compa ed o I aqi o es), Khomei i's suppo e s flooded I a wi h apes a d eco di gs of his se mo s.15101115

Wo se fo he Shah was ha he Wes e media, especially he B i ish B oadcas i g Co po a io (BBC), immedia ely pu Khomei i i o he spo ligh .15130 Khomei i apidly became a household ame i he Wes , po ayi g himself as a Eas e mys ic who did o seek powe , bu i s ead sough o f ee his people f om opp essio . Ma y wes e media ou le s, usually c i ical of such claims, became o e of Khomei i's mos powe ful ools.15101

I addi io , he media cove age e oded he i flue ce of o he , mo e mode a e cle gy such as Aya ollah Sha ia mada i a d Aya ollah Talegha i.108110115 The BBC i self la e issued a s a eme admi i g o havi g a c i ical disposi io o he Shah, sayi g ha i s b oadcas s helped o cha ge he collec ive pe cep io of he popula io .7

I Novembe , secula Na io al F o leade Ka im Sa jabi flew o Pa is o mee Khomei i. The e he wo sig ed a ag eeme fo a d af co s i u io ha would be Islamic a d democ a ic. I sig aled he ow official allia ce be wee he cle gy a d he secula opposi io .7108 I o de o help c ea e a democ a ic façade, Khomei i placed Wes e ized figu es (such as Sadegh Qo bzadeh a d Eb ahim Yazdi) as he public spokesme of he opposi io , a d eve spoke o he media of his i e io s o c ea e a heoc acy.7

U ive si y of Teh a p o es (5 Nov)edi

S ee demo s a io s co i ued a full fo ce wi h li le espo se f om he mili a y; by la e Oc obe , gove me officials effec ively eve ceded he U ive si y of Teh a o s ude p o es e s.110115 Wo se, he opposi io was i c easi gly becomi g a med wi h weapo s, fi i g a soldie s a d a acki g ba ks a d gove me buildi gs i a a emp o des abilize he cou y.21101

O 5 Novembe , demo s a io s a U ive si y of Teh a became deadly af e a figh b oke ou wi h a med soldie s.12120110115 Wi hi hou s, Teh a b oke ou i o a full-scale io . Block af e block of Wes e symbols such as movie hea e s a d depa me s o es, as well as gove me a d police buildi gs, we e seized, loo ed, a d bu ed. The B i ish embassy i Teh a was pa ially bu ed a d va dalized as well, a d he Ame ica embassy ea ly suffe ed he same fa e. The eve became k ow o fo eig obse ve s as The Day Teh a Bu ed.10101115131

Ma y of he io e s we e you g ee age boys, of e o ga ized by he mosques i sou he Teh a , a d e cou aged by hei mullahs o a ack a d des oy wes e a d secula symbols.20115131 The a my a d police, co fused abou hei o de s a d u de p essu e f om he Shah o o isk i i ia i g viole ce, effec ively gave up a d did o i e ve e.101115131132

Appoi me of a mili a y gove me (6 Nov)edi

As he si ua io o he s ee s spi aled ou of co ol, ma y well k ow a d epu able figu es wi hi he cou y bega o app oach he Shah, beggi g him o s op he chaos.721101115

O 6 Novembe , he Shah dismissed Sha if-Emami f om he pos of p ime mi is e , a d chose o appoi a mili a y gove me i i s place.7131 The Shah chose Ge e al Gholam-Reza Azha i o be p ime mi is e because of his mild-ma e ed app oach o he si ua io .10101131 The cabi e he would choose was a mili a y cabi e i ame o ly a d co sis ed p ima ily of civilia leade s.131

The same day, he Shah made a speech o I a ia elevisio .715132 He efe ed o himself as Padeshah ('Mas e Ki g'), i s ead of he mo e g a diose Shaha shah (ki g of ki gs), which he i sis ed o bei g called p eviously.110 I his speech he s a ed I have hea d he voice of you evolu io ... his evolu io ca o bu be suppo ed by me, he ki g of I a .110133 He apologized fo mis akes ha we e commi ed du i g his eig , a d p omised o e su e ha co up io would o lo ge exis .115132 He s a ed he would begi o wo k wi h he opposi io o b i g democ acy, a d would fo m a coali io gove me .10115132 I effec , he Shah i e ded o es ai he mili a y gove me (which he desc ibed as a empo a y ca e ake gove me ) f om ca yi g ou a full c ackdow .110

The speech backfi ed whe he evolu io a ies se sed weak ess f om he Shah a d smelled blood.115133 Khomei i a ou ced ha he e would be o eco cilia io wi h he Shah a d called o all I a ia s o ove h ow him.115133

Mili a y au ho i ies decla ed ma ial law i Khuzes a p ovi ce (I a 's mai oil p oduci g p ovi ce) a d deployed oops o i s oil facili ies. Navy pe so el we e also used as s ikeb eake s i he oil i dus y.10101131 S ee ma ches decli ed a d oil p oduc io bega i c easi g o ce agai , ea ly eachi g p e- evolu io a y levels.101131 I a symbolic blow o he opposi io , Ka im Sa jabi, who had visi ed Khomei i i Pa is, was a es ed upo his e u o I a .110

Howeve , he gove me s ill co i ued he policy of appeaseme a d ego ia io .715115132 The Shah o de ed he a es of 100 officials f om his ow gove me fo cha ges of co up io , i cludi g fo me p ime mi is e Ami Abbas-Hoveyda a d fo me SAVAK head Nema ollah Nassi i.715115

Muha am p o es s (ea ly Dec)edi

Khomei i co dem ed he mili a y gove me a d called fo co i ued p o es s.108134 He a d he p o es o ga ize s pla ed a se ies of escala i g p o es s du i g he holy Islamic mo h of Muha am, o culmi a e wi h massive p o es s o he days of Tasu'a a d Ashu a, he la e commemo a i g he ma y dom of Imam Hussei ib Ali, he hi d Shia Muslim imam.108

While he mili a y au ho i ies ba ed s ee demo s a io s a d ex e ded he cu few, he Shah faced deep misgivi gs abou he po e ial viole ce.110

O 2 Decembe 1978, he Muha am p o es s bega . Named fo he Islamic mo h hey bega i , he Muha am p o es s we e imp essively huge a d pivo al. Ove wo millio p o es e s135 (ma y of whom we e ee age s p osely ized by he mullahs f om he mosques of sou he Teh a ) ook o he s ee s, c owdi g Shahyad Squa e. P o es e s f eque ly we ou a igh , defyi g he se cu few, of e aki g o oof ops a d shou i g Allahu-akba ('God is g ea '). Acco di g o o e wi ess, ma y of he clashes o he s ee had a ai of playful ess a he ha se ious ess, wi h secu i y fo ces usi g kid gloves agai s he opposi io .115 Neve heless, he gove me epo ed a leas 12 opposi io dea hs.134

The p o es e s dema ded ha Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi s ep dow f om powe a d ha G a d Aya ollah Ruhollah Khomei i be e u ed f om exile. The p o es s g ew i c edibly fas , eachi g be wee six millio a d i e millio i s e g h i he fi s week. Abou 5% of he popula io had ake o he s ee s i he Muha am p o es s. Bo h begi i g a d e di g i he mo h of Muha am, he p o es s succeeded, a d he Shah s epped dow f om powe la e ha mo h.135

Af e he success of wha would become k ow as a evolu io , Aya ollah Khomei i e u ed o I a as i s eligious a d poli ical leade fo life. Khomei i had bee a opposi io leade o Shah fo ma y yea s, isi g o p omi e ce af e he dea h of his me o , e ow ed schola Yazdi Ha'i i, i he 1930s.136 Eve i his yea s i exile, Khomei i emai ed eleva i I a . Suppo i g he p o es s f om beyo d I a 's bo de s, he p oclaimed ha f eedom a d libe a io f om he bo ds of impe ialism was immi e .136

Tasu'a a d Ashu a ma ches (10–11 Dec)edi

As he days of Tasu'a a d Ashu a (10 a d 11 Decembe ) app oached, i o de o p eve a deadly showdow he Shah bega o d aw back. I ego ia io s wi h Aya ollah Sha ia mada i, he Shah o de ed he elease of 120 poli ical p iso e s a d Ka im Sa jabi, a d o 8 Decembe evoked he ba o s ee demo s a io s. Pe mi s we e issued fo he ma che s, a d oops we e emoved f om he p ocessio 's pa h. I u , Sha ia mada i pledged ha o make su e ha he e would be o viole ce du i g he demo s a io s.110

O 10 a d 11 Decembe 1978, he days of Tasu'a a d Ashu a, be wee 6 a d 9 millio a i-Shah demo s a o s ma ched h oughou I a . Acco di g o o e his o ia , eve discou i g fo exagge a io , hese figu es may ep ese he la ges p o es eve i his o y.137 The ma ches we e led by Aya ollah Talegha i a d Na io al F o leade Ka im Sa jabi, hus symbolizi g he u i y of he secula a d eligious opposi io . The mullahs a d bazaa is effec ively policed he ga he i g, a d p o es e s who a emp ed o i i ia e viole ce we e es ai ed.108

Mo e ha 10% of he cou y ma ched i a i-Shah demo s a io s o he wo days, possibly a highe pe ce age ha a y p evious evolu io . I is a e fo a evolu io o i volve as much as 1 pe ce of a cou y's popula io ; he F e ch, Russia , a d Roma ia evolu io s may have passed he 1 pe ce ma k.25

Revolu io (la e 1978–1979)edi

Much of I a ia socie y was i eupho ia abou he comi g evolu io . Secula a d lef is poli icia s piled o o he moveme hopi g o gai powe i he af e ma h, ig o i g he fac ha Khomei i was he ve y a i hesis o all of he posi io s hey suppo ed.7 While i was i c easi gly clea o mo e secula I a ia s ha Khomei i was o a libe al, he was widely pe ceived as a figu ehead, a d ha powe would eve ually be ha ded o he secula g oups.7115

Demo aliza io of he A my (Decembe , 1978)edi

The mili a y leade ship was i c easi gly pa alyzed by i decisio , a d a k-a d-file soldie s we e demo alized, havi g bee fo ced o co f o demo s a o s while p ohibi ed f om usi g hei ow weapo s (a d bei g co dem ed by he Shah if hey did).113 I c easi gly, Khomei i called o he soldie s of he a med fo ces o defec o he opposi io .112101 Revolu io a ies gave flowe s a d civilia clo hes o dese e s, while h ea e i g e ibu io o hose who s ayed.

O 11 Decembe , a doze office s we e sho dead by hei ow oops a Teh a 's Laviza ba acks. Fea i g fu he mu i ies, ma y soldie s we e e u ed o hei ba acks.113 Mashhad ( he seco d la ges ci y i I a ) was aba do ed o he p o es e s, a d i ma y p ovi cial ow s demo s a o s we e effec ively i co ol.108

Ame ica a d i e al ego ia io s wi h he opposi io (la e Decembe , 1978)edi

The Ca e admi is a io i c easi gly became locked i a deba e abou co i ued suppo fo he mo a chy.138 As ea ly as Novembe , ambassado William Sulliva se a eleg am o Ca e ( he Thi ki g he U hi kable eleg am138). The eleg am effec ively decla ed his belief ha he Shah would o su vive he p o es s a d ha he US should co side wi hd awi g i s suppo fo his gove me a d pe suadi g he mo a ch o abdica e. The U i ed S a es would he help assemble a coali io of p o-Wes e mili a y office s, middle class p ofessio als, a d mode a e cle gy, wi h Khomei i i s alled as a Ga dhi-like spi i ual leade .138

The eleg am ouched off a vigo ous deba e i he Ame ica cabi e , wi h some, such as Na io al Secu i y Adviso Zbig iew B zezi ski,138 ejec i g i ou igh . Sec e a y of S a e Cy us Va ce ejec ed a mili a y c ackdow ;108 he a d his suppo e s believed i he mode a e a d p og essive i e io s of Khomei i a d his ci cle.116138

I c easi g co ac was es ablished wi h he p o-Khomei i camp. Based o he evolu io a ies' espo ses, some Ame ica officials (especially Ambassado Sulliva ) fel ha Khomei i was ge ui ely i e o c ea i g a democ acy.7 Acco di g o his o ia Abbas Mila i, his esul ed i he U i ed S a es effec ively helpi g o facili a e Khomei i's ise o powe .7139140

The Shah bega o sea ch fo a ew p ime mi is e , o e who was a civilia a d a membe of he opposi io . O 28 Decembe , he secu ed a ag eeme wi h a o he majo Na io al F o figu e, Shahpou Bakh ia . Bakh ia would be appoi ed p ime mi is e (a e u o civilia ule), while he Shah a d his family would leave he cou y. His oyal du ies would be ca ied ou by a Rege cy Cou cil, a d h ee mo hs af e his depa u e a efe e dum would be submi ed o he people decidi g o whe he I a would emai a mo a chy o become a epublic. A fo me oppo e of he Shah, Bakh ia became mo iva ed o joi he gove me because he was i c easi gly awa e of Khomei i's i e io s o impleme ha d-li e eligious ule a he ha a democ acy.15 Ka im Sa jabi immedia ely expelled Bakh ia f om he Na io al F o , a d Bakh ia was de ou ced by Khomei i (who decla ed ha accep a ce of his gove me was he equivale of obedie ce o false gods).7141

The Shah leaves (Ja ua y, 1979)edi

The Shah, hopi g o see Bakh ia es ablished, kep delayi g his depa u e. Co seque ly, o he I a ia public, Bakh ia was see as he Shah's las p ime mi is e , u de mi i g his suppo .108

Ame ica Ge e al Robe Huyse , he Depu y Comma de of NATO, e e ed I a .7 While he op io of a p o-Shah mili a y coup s ill was a possibili y, Huyse me wi h mili a y leade s (bu o he Shah) a d es ablished mee i gs be wee hem a d Khomei i allies fo he pu pose of ag eei g o Bakh ia 's a si io al gove me .7101108142 Ambassado Sulliva disag eed, a d a emp ed o p essu e Huyse o ig o e he mili a y a d wo k di ec ly wi h Khomei i's opposi io .108142 Neve heless, Huyse wo ou a d co i ued o wo k wi h bo h he mili a y a d opposi io . He lef I a o 3 Feb ua y.108142 The Shah was p iva ely embi e ed by Huyse 's missio , a d fel ha he U i ed S a es o lo ge wa ed him i powe .101

O he mo i g of 16 Ja ua y 1979, Bakh ia was officially appoi ed p ime mi is e . The same day, a ea ful Shah a d his family lef I a fo exile i Egyp , eve o e u .7

Bakh ia 's p emie ship a d Khomei i's e u (Ja ua y–Feb ua y, 1979)edi

Whe ews of he Shah's depa u e was a ou ced, he e we e spo a eous sce es of joy h oughou he cou y. Millio s pou ed o o he s ee s, a d vi ually eve y emai i g sig of he mo a chy was o dow by he c owds.108143 Bakh ia dissolved SAVAK a d f eed all emai i g poli ical p iso e s. He o de ed he a my o allow mass demo s a io s, p omised f ee elec io s a d i vi ed he evolu io a ies i o a gove me of a io al u i y.141144

Bakh ia i vi ed Khomei i back o I a , wi h he i e io of c ea i g a Va ica -like s a e i he holy ci y of Qom, decla i g ha We will soo have he ho o of welcomi g home he Aya ollah Khomei i.141 O 1 Feb ua y 1979 Khomei i e u ed o Teh a i a cha e ed Ai F a ce Boei g 747.145 The welcomi g c owd of seve al millio I a ia s was so la ge he was fo ced o ake a helicop e af e he ca aki g him f om he ai po was ove whelmed by a e husias ic welcomi g c owd.146

Khomei i was ow o o ly he u dispu ed leade of he evolu io ,5147 he had become wha some called a semi-divi e figu e, g ee ed as he desce ded f om his ai pla e wi h c ies of 'Khomei i, O Imam, we salu e you, peace be upo you.'148 C owds we e ow k ow o cha Islam, Islam, Khomei i, We Will Follow You, a d eve Khomei i fo Ki g.149 Whe asked by a epo e how he fel e u i g o his home cou y af e a lo g exile, Khomei i eplied No hi g.

O he day of his a ival Khomei i made clea his ejec io of Bakh ia 's gove me i a speech p omisi g, I shall kick hei ee h i . I appoi he gove me , I appoi he gove me i suppo of his a io .141 O 5 Feb ua y a his headqua e s i he Refah School i sou he Teh a , he decla ed a p ovisio al evolu io a y gove me , appoi ed opposi io leade Mehdi Baza ga (f om he eligious- a io alis F eedom Moveme , affilia ed wi h he Na io al F o ) as his ow p ime mi is e , a d comma ded I a ia s o obey Baza ga as a eligious du y.12115108141

Th ough he gua dia ship Velaya ha I have f om he holy lawgive he P ophe , I he eby p o ou ce Baza ga as he Rule , a d si ce I have appoi ed him, he mus be obeyed. The a io mus obey him. This is o a o di a y gove me . I is a gove me based o he sha ia. Opposi g his gove me mea s opposi g he sha ia of Islam ... Revol agai s God's gove me is a evol agai s God. Revol agai s God is blasphemy.150151

A ge ed, Bakh ia made a speech of his ow . Reaffi mi g himself as he legi ima e leade , he decla ed ha :

I a has o e gove me . Mo e ha his is i ole able, ei he fo me o fo you o fo a y o he I a ia . As a Muslim, I had o hea d ha jihad efe s o o e Muslim agai s o he Muslims.... I will o give pe missio o Aya ollah Khomei i o fo m a i e im gove me . I life he e comes a ime whe o e mus s a d fi m a d say o.... I have eve see a book abou a Islamic epublic; ei he has a yo e else fo ha ma e .... Some of he people su ou di g he Aya ollah a e like viole vul u es.... The cle gy should go o Qom a d build a wall a ou d hemselves a d c ea e hei ow Va ica .141

A med ba les a d collapse of he mo a chy (Feb ua y, 1979)edi

Te sio s be wee he wo ival gove me s i c eased apidly. To demo s a e his suppo , Khomei i called fo demo s a o s o occupy he s ee s h oughou he cou y. He also se a le e o Ame ica officials wa i g hem o wi hd aw suppo fo Bakh ia .7 Bakh ia became i c easi gly isola ed, wi h membe s of he gove me (i cludi g he e i e Rege cy Cou cil) defec i g o Khomei i. The mili a y was c umbli g, wi h i s leade ship comple ely pa alyzed, u su e of whe he o suppo Bakh ia o ac o hei ow , a d a k-a d-file soldie s ei he demo alized o dese i g.108113

O 9 Feb ua y, a ebellio of p o-Khomei i ai fo ce ech icia s b oke ou a he Dosha Tappeh Ai Base. A u i of he p o-Shah Immo al Gua ds a emp ed o app ehe d he ebels, a d a a med ba le b oke ou . Soo la ge c owds ook o he s ee s, buildi g ba icades a d suppo i g he ebels, while Islamic-Ma xis gue illas wi h hei weapo s joi ed i suppo .108

The a med ebels a acked a weapo s fac o y, cap u i g ea ly 50,000 machi e gu s a d dis ibu i g hem o civilia s who joi ed i he figh i g. The ebels bega s o mi g police s a io s a d mili a y bases h oughou Teh a . The ci y's ma ial law comma de Ge e al Mehdi Rahimi decided o o use his 30,000 loyal Immo al Gua ds o c ush he ebellio fo fea of p oduci g civilia casual ies.132

The fi al collapse of he p ovisio al o -Islamis gove me came a 2 pm o 11 Feb ua y whe he Sup eme Mili a y Cou cil decla ed i self eu al i he cu e poli ical dispu es... i o de o p eve fu he diso de a d bloodshed.152153 All mili a y pe so el we e o de ed back o hei bases, effec ively yieldi g co ol of he e i e cou y o Khomei i.113 Revolu io a ies ook ove gove me buildi gs, TV a d adio s a io s, a d palaces of he Pahlavi dy as y, ma ki g he e d of he mo a chy i I a . Bakh ia escaped he palace u de a hail of bulle s, fleei g I a i disguise. He was la e assassi a ed by a age of he Islamic Republic i 1991 i Pa is.

This pe iod, f om 1 o 11 Feb ua y, is celeb a ed eve y yea i I a as he Decade of Faj .154 11 Feb ua y is Islamic Revolu io 's Vic o y Day, a a io al holiday wi h s a e spo so ed demo s a io s i eve y ci y.155156

Casual iesedi

Some sou ces (such as Emadeddi Baghi, a esea che a he Ma y s Fou da io ) claim 2,781 p o es e s a d evolu io a ies we e killed i 1978–79 du i g he Revolu io .157No e 5 Khomei i epo ed of a much la ge umbe ; he said ha 60,000 me , wome a d child e we e ma y ed by he Shah's egime.158159160 I efe e ce o his 60,000 figu e, he mili a y his o ia Spe ce C. Tucke o es ha Khomei i's egime g ossly ove s a ed he evolu io 's dea h oll fo p opaga da pu poses.161 Tucke explai s ha he co se sus of his o ia s ega di g es ima ed dea hs du i g he I a ia Revolu io (f om Ja ua y 1978 o Feb ua y 1979), umbe s be wee 532 a d 2,781.161 Acco di g o he his o ia E va d Ab ahamia , he umbe execu ed by evolu io a y cou s as he evolu io was co solida ed (8,000 oppo e s be wee Ju e 1981 a d Ju e 1985)162 exceeded hose killed by he oyalis gove me yi g o s op he evolu io .163 Acco di g o Tucke 's es ima io s, i he pe iod of 1980 o 1985, be wee 25,000 a d 40,000 I a ia s we e a es ed, 15,000 I a ia s we e ied a d 8,000 o 9,500 I a ia s we e execu ed.161

So gs of I a ia Revolu io edi

The so gs mos closely associa ed wi h he evolu io a e epic ballads, composed du i g a d i suppo of he Islamic Revolu io a d i opposi io o he Pahlavi dy as y.164 Befo e he evolu io was co solida ed, hese cha s we e made by va ious poli ical suppo e s, a d we e of e eco ded o casse e apes i u de g ou d a d home s udios. I schools, hese so gs we e su g by s ude s as pa of he celeb a io s of Faj Decades.165 I a I a o Allah Allah cha s a e famous evolu io a y so gs.166

Wome 's oleedi

The I a ia Revolu io was a ge de ed evolu io ; much of he ew egime's he o ic was ce e ed o he posi io of wome i I a ia socie y.167 Beyo d he o ic, housa ds of wome we e also heavily mobilized i he evolu io i self,168 a d diffe e g oups of wome ac ively pa icipa ed alo gside hei male cou e pa s.169 No o ly pa icipa i g h ough vo i g, wome co ibu ed o he evolu io h ough ma ches, demo s a io s a d cha i g sloga s.170 Wome we e i volved i ca i g fo he wou ded, i cludi g doc o s who espo ded o calls fo help a d ope ed hei homes fo hose who eeded assis a ce. While wome hemselves we e of e killed, o u ed, a es ed o i ju ed a d some we e i volved i gue illa ac ivi ies, mos co ibu ed i o -viole ways.171 Ma y wome we e i s ume al o o ly i bei g i volved i he evolu io hemselves bu i mobilizi g me a d o he o -poli ical wome . Ma y wome p o es ed while ca yi g child e a d hei p ese ce was o e of he mai easo s fo disa mi g soldie s (who we e he e o behalf of he egime) who we e o de ed o shoo if ecessa y.171

Khomei i's he o ic o wome 's pa icipa io edi

Aya ollah Khomei i asse ed ha You ladies he e have p oved ha you a e a he fo ef o of his moveme . You have a g ea sha e i ou Islamic moveme . The fu u e of ou cou y depe ds o you suppo .172 He i voked he image of he hijab as a symbol of he evolu io , sayi g ha , a a io whose espec ed wome demo s a e i modes ga b hejab o exp ess hei disgus wi h he Shah's egime- such a a io will be vic o ious.173 He also said ha , wome f om all levels of socie y ook pa i he ece demo s a io s, which we a e calli g he ' efe e dum of he s ee s'... wome fough side by side wi h me i he s uggle fo hei i depe de ce a d hei libe y.174 Khomei i pleaded wome o pa icipa e i a i-Shah demo s a io s i va ious ci ies. Fu he mo e, wome la e espo ded o Khomei i's u ge o vo e i favo of he Islamic Republic a d he ew co s i u io .170 Wome we e so pivo al o he evolu io ha i espo se o a sugges io f om a op aid o ba wome f om comi g o g oup audie ce, Khomei i said I h ew he Shah ou wi h hese wome , he e's o p oblem i hei comi g.173

Af e he evolu io , Khomei i c edi ed much of he success of he moveme o wome , eve comme di g he wome fo mobilizi g me , you ladies have p oved ha you a e i he va gua d of he moveme , you have p oved ha you lead he me , me ge hei i spi a io f om you, he me of I a have lea lesso s f om he ho ou able ladies of I a ...You a e i he va gua d of he moveme .172

I has bee a gued ha Khomei i a d his fellow leade s da ced a ou d he issue of wome 's igh s a d a he focused hei he o ic o mobilizi g wome h ough e cou agi g hem o pa icipa e i p o es s a d fueli g hei a i-Shah se ime s.175

Va ia io wi hi wome 's pa icipa io edi

The co ibu io s of wome o he evolu io s a d he i e io s behi d hese co ibu io s a e complex a d laye ed. The mo iva io s of wome fo bei g pa of he evolu io s we e complex a d va ied amo g a ple ho a of eligious, poli ical a d eco omic easo s176 a d wome pa icipa i g we e f om va ious classes a d backg ou ds.177 Ma y Wes e educa ed uppe -middle-class wome f om secula , u ba a d p ofessio al families we e i volved as well as ma y wome f om wo ki g-class a d u al backg ou ds.171 The e we e g oups as va ied as he Fida'iya -i Khalq, a d he Mujahedi we e fu c io i g as gue illa u i s du i g he evolu io s i opposi io o he Shah's egime.171 The e we e also o he g oups of wome wi h va ious age das ha some imes co ve ged a d some imes dive ged f om he Islamic Republic's poli ical posi io s. Fo example, o ga ized femi ism which was a ou d si ce he Pahlavi dy as y, joi ed he evolu io a y moveme af e he Shah d opped he cabi e posi io o Wome 's Affai s o appease he Islamis s.173 Membe s of he Wome 's O ga iza io of I a ma ched i suppo fo he evolu io a d i was impo a ha wome ve y much li ked o he gove me also u ed agai s he Shah's egime.175 Ye , he e we e la e some e sio be wee femi is s' d ess a d he evolu io 's s a ce o wome 's clo hi g a d hey bega o feel u comfo able a opposi io eve s.176

Some a gue ha his poli iciza io a d mobiliza io of wome made i difficul fo he ew egime o push hem ou of he public a d poli ical sphe es. The evolu io esul ed i a u p ecede ed ope i g fo I a ia wome i o poli ics (mos ly h ough demo s a io s a d vo i g),178 a d some au ho s a gue ha his had a las i g impac o I a ia wome 's poli ical pa icipa io a d ole i he public sphe e.170 Some wome we e also pa of he i e ci cle of he leade s of he ew egime such as Ma zieh Hadidchi. O he ha he poli iciza io of wome , he e we e pa icula ci cums a ces du i g he evolu io which pushed wome i o bei g i volved wi h poli ics. Fo example, he combi a io of ma ial law wi h i s cu few hou s a d he closi g dow of shops a d wo kplaces, oge he wi h he cold of he fall a d wi e mo hs esul ed i he ce e s of poli ical discussio of e bei g wi hi he home.179 Wome e gaged wi h ews a d media as well as poli ical discussio s alo gside hei male cou e pa s as he evolu io was he o ly opic of i e es o a yo e, ega dless of age o **7**.179 Du i g 1978 a d 1979 he e we e ma y ga he i gs i wome 's homes whe e hey excha ged i e pe so al ews a d a ecdo es. These pe so al accou s we e valuable i a ime whe e he official cove age of ews was o us ed by ma y people.171

Wome who we e ac ivis s, eligious wome a d wome dissa isfied wi h he egime we e able o u i e u de he a i-Shah umb ella. Howeve i 's impo a o o e ha wome we e o u i ed i hei opi io s of he evolu io a d i s ou come as much as hey we e o u i ed i hei easo s fo joi i g he evolu io .180 Despi e his mobiliza io a d high pa icipa io a e of wome , hey we e s ill kep ou of leade ship posi io s which we e exclusive o me ; wome a e hough o be pa of he a k a d file a he ha he eli e s a a of he evolu io .175

Academic li e a u e o wome 's pa icipa io edi

While he e has bee some academic li e a u e explo i g i dividual a a ives of wome o he evolu io ,170 mos of he academic wo k p oduced focuses o he effec of he evolu io o wome a he ha he ole of I a ia wome du i g he evolu io . Schola Gui y Nasha highligh s his eglec ed aspec of he evolu io , Al hough wome 's pa icipa io i he eve s leadi g o he 11 Feb ua y evolu io was i s ume al i i s success, mos s udies have o add essed he easo s fo hei i volveme o hei co ibu io .181 Ja e Bau a gues he ecessi y of exami i g he daily lives of wome , hei livi g co di io s a d hei ela io ship o o he g oups i o de o u de s a d hei pa icipa io i he socio-poli ical eve s of he evolu io . She fu he explai s ha he cul u al, ideological, social a d ma e ial fac o s shapi g he social life a d class diffe e ces i he pe iod jus p io o he evolu io eed o be s udied i o de o u de s a d how he I a ia wome 's social co scious ess developed a d how i led hem o ake pa i public p o es s.171 Ca oli e M. B ooks a gues ha wome we e lef o exp ess hei co ce s h ough he p o es a he ha i he Majlis. Thus, his c ea ed a da ge ous ba gai i g posi io fo ac ivis wome si ce a he ha a gui g hei posi io h ough i ellec hey we e o ly able o a gue by umbe s i he s ee s a d be epelled by fo ce.175

The e a e some co es i g u de s a di gs i academic li e a u e ega di g he easo s behi d he mobiliza io of wome . While some a gue ha he mic o-level ac io s of wome ca be u de s ood h ough eligious a d poli ical ideologies, o he s a gue ha i is i fac he effec of ma ipula io s of i fo ma io , symbols a d co ex which should be s udied.171

Af e ma hedi

F om ea ly 1979 o ei he 1982 o 1983 I a was i a evolu io a y c isis mode.182 Af e he sys em of despo ic mo a chy had bee ove h ow ,183 he eco omy a d he appa a us of gove me had collapsed, a d mili a y a d secu i y fo ces we e i disa ay. Ye , by 1982 Khomei i a d his suppo e s had c ushed he ival fac io s, defea ed local ebellio s a d co solida ed powe .

A he same ime, eve s ha made up bo h he c isis a d i s esolu io we e he I a hos age c isis, he i vasio of I a by Saddam Hussei 's I aq, a d he p eside cy of Abolhassa Ba isad .182184

Khomei i's co solida io of powe edi

Co flic s amo g evolu io a iesedi

Some obse ve s believe wha bega as a au he ic a d a i-dic a o ial popula evolu io based o a b oad coali io of all a i-Shah fo ces was soo a sfo med i o a Islamic fu dame alis powe -g ab,186 ha excep fo his co e suppo e s, he membe s of he coali io hough Khomei i i e ded o be mo e of a spi i ual guide ha a ule .187 Khomei i was i his mid-70s, eve held public office, bee ou of I a fo mo e ha a decade, a d old ques io e s he eligious dig i a ies do o wa o ule.185 Howeve , obody could de y he u a imous ce al ole of he Imam, a d he o he fac io s we e oo small o have a y eal impac .

A o he view is Khomei i had ove whelmi g ideological, poli ical a d o ga iza io al hegemo y,188 a d o - heoc a ic g oups eve se iously challe ged Khomei i's moveme i popula suppo .No e 6 Suppo e s of he ew ule hemselves have claimed ha I a ia s who opposed Khomei i we e fif h colum is s led by fo eig cou ies a emp i g o ove h ow he I a ia gove me .190

Khomei i a d his loyalis s i he evolu io a y o ga iza io s impleme ed Khomei i's velaya -e faqih desig fo a Islamic epublic led by himself as Sup eme Leade 191 by exploi i g empo a y allies192 such as Mehdi Baza ga 's P ovisio al Gove me of I a , whom hey la e elimi a ed f om I a 's poli ical s age o e by o e.193

O ga iza io s of he evolu io edi

Poli ical

Mili a

 Islam po al

The mos impo a bodies of he evolu io we e he Revolu io a y Cou cil, he Revolu io a y Gua ds, Revolu io a y T ibu als, Islamic Republica Pa y, a d Revolu io a y Commi ees (komi ehs).194

While he mode a e Baza ga a d his gove me ( empo a ily) eassu ed he middle class, i became appa e hey did o have powe ove he Khomei is evolu io a y bodies, pa icula ly he Revolu io a y Cou cil ( he eal powe i he evolu io a y s a e),195196 a d la e he Islamic Republica Pa y. I evi ably, he ove lappi g au ho i y of he Revolu io a y Cou cil (which had he powe o pass laws) a d Baza ga 's gove me was a sou ce of co flic ,197 despi e he fac ha bo h had bee app oved by a do pu i place by Khomei i.

This co flic las ed o ly a few mo hs howeve . The p ovisio al gove me fell sho ly af e Ame ica Embassy officials we e ake hos age o 4 Novembe 1979. Baza ga 's esig a io was eceived by Khomei i wi hou complai , sayi g M . Baza ga ... was a li le i ed a d p efe ed o s ay o he sideli es fo a while. Khomei i la e desc ibed his appoi me of Baza ga as a mis ake.198

The Revolu io a y Gua d, o Pasda a -e E qelab, was es ablished by Khomei i o 5 May 1979, as a cou e weigh bo h o he a med g oups of he lef , a d o he Shah's mili a y. The gua d eve ually g ew i o a full-scale mili a y fo ce,199 becomi g he s o ges i s i u io of he evolu io .200

Se vi g u de he Pasda a we ea e he Baseej-e Mos az'afi , (Opp essed Mobiliza io )201 volu ee s i eve y hi g f om ea hquake eme ge cy ma ageme o a acki g opposi io demo s a o s a d ewspape offices.202 The Islamic Republica Pa y203 he fough o es ablish a heoc a ic gove me by velaya -e faqih.

Thousa ds of komi eh o Revolu io a y Commi ees204 se ved as he eyes a d ea s of he ew ule a d a e c edi ed by c i ics wi h ma y a bi a y a es s, execu io s a d co fisca io s of p ope y.205

Also e fo ci g he will of he gove me we e he Hezbollahi ( he Pa y of God), s o g-a m hugs who a acked demo s a o s a d offices of ewspape s c i ical of Khomei i.206

Two majo poli ical g oups ha fo med af e he fall of he Shah ha clashed wi h a d we e eve ually supp essed by p o-Khomei i g oups, we e he mode a e eligious Muslim People's Republica Pa y (MPRP) which was associa ed wi h G a d Aya ollah Mohammad Kazem Sha ia mada i, a d he secula lef is Na io al Democ a ic F o (NDF).

1979 e h ic up isi gsedi

Followi g he eve s of he evolu io , Ma xis gue illas a d fede alis pa ies evol ed i some egio s comp isi g Khuzis a , Ku dis a a d Go bad-e Qabus, which esul ed i figh i g be wee hem a d evolu io a y fo ces. These evol s bega i Ap il 1979 a d las ed be wee seve al mo hs o ove a yea , depe di g o he egio .

Es ablishme of Islamic epublic gove me edi

Refe e dum of 12 Fa va di edi

O 30 a d 31 Ma ch (Fa va di 10, 11) a efe e dum was held ove whe he o eplace he mo a chy wi h a Islamic epublic. Khomei i called fo a massive u ou 207 a d o ly he Na io al Democ a ic F o , Fadaya , a d seve al Ku dish pa ies opposed he vo e.207 The esul s showed ha 98.2% had vo ed i favo of he Islamic Republic.207

W i i g of he co s i u io edi

I Ju e 1979 he F eedom Moveme eleased i s d af co s i u io fo he Islamic Republic ha i had bee wo ki g o si ce Khomei i was i exile. I i cluded a Gua dia Cou cil o ve o u -Islamic legisla io , bu had o gua dia ju is ule .208 Lef is s fou d he d af oo co se va ive a d i eed of majo cha ges bu Khomei i decla ed i 'co ec '.209 To app ove he ew co s i u io a d p eve lef is al e a io s, a ela ively small seve y- h ee-membe Assembly of Expe s fo Co s i u io was elec ed ha summe . C i ics complai ed ha vo e- iggi g, viole ce agai s u desi able ca dida es a d he dissemi a io of false i fo ma io was used o p oduce a assembly ove whelmi gly domi a ed by cle gy, all ook ac ive oles du i g he evolu io a d loyal o Khomei i.210

Khomei i (a d he assembly) ow ejec ed he co s i u io – i s co ec ess o wi hs a di g – a d Khomei i decla ed ha he ew gove me should be based 100% o Islam.211

I addi io o he p eside , he ew co s i u io i cluded a mo e powe ful pos of gua dia ju is ule i e ded fo Khomei i,212 wi h co ol of he mili a y a d secu i y se vices, a d powe o appoi seve al op gove me a d judicial officials. I i c eased he powe a d umbe of cle ics o he Cou cil of Gua dia s a d gave i co ol ove elec io s213 as well as laws passed by he legisla u e.

The ew co s i u io was also app oved ove whelmi gly by he Decembe 1979 co s i u io al efe e dum, bu wi h mo e opposi io No e 7 a d smalle u ou .214

Hos age c isisedi

I la e Oc obe 1979, he exiled a d dyi g Shah was admi ed i o he U i ed S a es fo ca ce ea me . I I a he e was a immedia e ou c y, a d bo h Khomei i a d lef is g oups dema ded he Shah's e u o I a fo ial a d execu io . O 4 Novembe 1979 you hful Islamis s, calli g hemselves Muslim S ude Followe s of he Imam's Li e, i vaded he US embassy compou d i Teh a a d seized i s s aff. Revolu io a ies we e a g y because of how he Shah had lef I a which spaw ed umo s of a o he U.S.–backed coup i I a ha would e-i s all him. The occupa io was also i e ded as leve age o dema d he e u of he Shah o s a d ial i excha ge fo he hos ages, a d depose P ime Mi is e Mehdi Baza ga , who hey believed was plo i g o o malize ela io s wi h he U.S. The s ude s held 52 Ame ica diploma s hos age fo 444 days, which played a ole i helpi g o pass he co s i u io , supp essi g mode a es, a d o he wise adicalisi g he evolu io .215

Holdi g he hos ages was ve y popula a d co i ued eve af e he dea h of he Shah. As Khomei i explai ed o his fu u e P eside Ba isad , This ac io has ma y be efi s. ... This has u i ed ou people. Ou oppo e s do o da e ac agai s us. We ca pu he co s i u io o he people's vo e wi hou difficul y ...216

Wi h g ea publici y he s ude s eleased docume s f om he Ame ica embassy, which hey labeled a de of spies,217 showi g ha mode a e I a ia leade s had me wi h U.S. officials (a d did ' elease simila evide ce of high- a ki g Islamis s havi g do e he same).218 Amo g he casual ies of he hos age c isis was P ime Mi is e Baza ga a d his gove me , who esig ed i Novembe u able o e fo ce he gove me 's o de o elease he hos ages.219

The p es ige of Khomei i a d he hos age aki g was fu he e ha ced wi h he failu e of a hos age escue a emp , widely c edi ed o divi e i e ve io .220

The hos age c isis e ded wi h he sig i g of he Algie s Acco ds i Alge ia o 19 Ja ua y 1981. The hos ages we e fo mally eleased o U i ed S a es cus ody he followi g day, jus mi u es af e Ro ald Reaga was swo i as he ew Ame ica p eside .

Supp essio of opposi io edi

I ea ly Ma ch 1979, Khomei i a ou ced, do o use his e m, 'democ a ic.' Tha is he Wes e s yle, givi g p o-democ acy libe als (a d la e lef is s) a as e of disappoi me s o come.207 I successio he Na io al Democ a ic F o was ba ed i Augus 1979, he p ovisio al gove me was disempowe ed i Novembe , he Muslim People's Republica Pa y was ba ed i Ja ua y 1980, he People's Mujahedi of I a gue illas came u de a ack i Feb ua y 1980, a pu ge of u ive si ies s a ed i Ma ch 1980, a d he libe al Islamis P eside Abolhassa Ba isad was impeached i Ju e 1981.221

Af e he evolu io , huma igh s g oups es ima ed he umbe of casual ies suffe ed by p o es e s a d p iso e s of he ew sys em o be seve al housa d. The fi s o be execu ed we e membe s of he old sys em – se io ge e als, followed by ove 200 se io civilia officials222 – as pu ishme a d o elimi a e he da ge of a coup d'é a . B ief ials lacki g defe se a o eys, ju ies, a spa e cy o he oppo u i y fo he accused o defe d hemselves223 we e held by evolu io a y judges such as Sadegh Khalkhali, he Sha ia judge. By Ja ua y 1980 a leas 582 pe so s had bee execu ed.224 Amo g hose execu ed was Ami Abbas Hoveida, fo me P ime Mi is e of I a .225 Be wee Ja ua y 1980 a d Ju e 1981, whe Ba i-Sad was impeached, a leas 900 execu io s ook place,226 fo eve y hi g f om d ug a d **7**ual offe ses o co up io o ea h, f om plo i g cou e - evolu io a d spyi g fo Is ael o membe ship i opposi io g oups.227

The 1981 Massac eedi

Be wee Ju e 1981 a d Ma ch 1982, he heoc a ic egime ca ied ou he la ges poli ical massac e i I a ia his o y, a ge i g commu is s, socialis s, social democ a s, libe als, mo a chis s, mode a e Islamis s, a d membe s of he Baha'i fai h as pa of he I a ia Cul u al Revolu io dec eed by Khomei i o 14 Ju e 1980 wi h he i e of pu ifyi g I a ia socie y of o -Islamic eleme s.228 Be wee Ju e 1981 a d Ju e 1982, Am es y I e a io al docume ed 2,946 execu io s, wi h seve al housa d mo e killed i he ex wo yea s acco di g o he a i-gove me gue illa People's Mujahedi of I a .229 Mo e ece ly, Ras yad Collec ive has ve ified he ide i ies of mo e ha 3,400 poli ical disside s who we e execu ed be wee Ju e 1981 a d Ma ch 1982.230 231These disside s we e se e ced o dea h by he Islamic Revolu io a y Cou s du i g show ials i mo e ha eigh y-five ci ies ac oss he cou y o cha ges of sp eadi g “co up io o Ea h” (ifsad-fi-ala z), “espio age”, “ e o ism”, o “e mi y agai s Allah” (Moha ebeh).228 Mos vic ims of he 1981 Massac e we e you g ac ivis s aged eleve o we y-fou . These ac ivis s we e ei he high school s ude s o had ece ly g adua ed f om u ive si ies i I a a d ab oad. Du i g he massac e, hu d eds of mi o s we e also subjec ed o a bi a y de e io , o u e, a d summa y execu io s o ideologically mo iva ed cha ges of ifsad-fi-ala z a d moha ebeh by he evolu io a y cou s.230228232

Closi g of o -Islamis ewspape sedi

I mid-Augus 1979, sho ly af e he elec io of he co s i u io -w i i g assembly, seve al doze ewspape s a d magazi es opposi g Khomei i's idea of heoc a ic ule by ju is s we e shu dow .233234235 Whe p o es s we e o ga ized by he Na io al Democ a ic F o (NDF), Khomei i a g ily de ou ced hem sayi g, we hough we we e deali g wi h huma bei gs. I is evide we a e o .236

... Af e each evolu io seve al housa d of hese co up eleme s a e execu ed i public a d bu a d he s o y is ove . They a e o allowed o publish ewspape s.236

Hu d eds we e i ju ed by ocks, clubs, chai s a d i o ba s whe Hezbollahi a acked he p o es e s,234 a d sho ly af e , a wa a was issued fo he a es of he NDF's leade .237

Muslim People's Republica Pa yedi

I Decembe he mode a e Islamic pa y Muslim People's Republica Pa y (MPRP) a d i s spi i ual leade Mohammad Kazem Sha ia mada i had become a allyi g poi fo I a ia s who wa ed democ acy o heoc acy.238 Rio s b oke ou i Sha ia mada i's Aze i home egio wi h membe s of he MPRP a d Sha ia mada i's followe s seizi g he Tab iz elevisio s a io a d usi g i o b oadcas dema ds a d g ieva ces. The egime eac ed quickly, se di g Revolu io a y Gua ds o e ake he TV s a io , media o s o defuse complai s a d ac ivis s o s age a massive p o-Khomei i cou e -demo s a io .239 The pa y was supp essed,238 a d i 1982 Sha ia mada i was demo ed f om he a k of G a d Aya ollah a d ma y of his cle ical followe s we e pu ged.240

Islamis lef edi

I Ja ua y 1980, Abolhassa Ba isad was elec ed p eside of I a . Though a advise o Khomei i, he was a lef is who clashed wi h a o he ally of Khomei i, he heoc a ic Islamic Republic Pa y (IRP) – he co olli g powe i he ew pa liame .241

A he same ime, e s while evolu io a y allies of Khomei i – he Islamis mode is gue illa g oup People's Mujahedi of I a (o MEK) – we e bei g supp essed by Khomei i's fo ces. Khomei i a acked he MEK, efe i g o hem as mo afeqi (hypoc i es) a d kafe (u believe s).242 Hezbollahi people a acked mee i g places, books o es, a d ewss a ds of Mujahidee a d o he lef is s,243 d ivi g hem u de g ou d. U ive si ies we e closed o pu ge hem of oppo e s of heoc a ic ule as a pa of he Cul u al Revolu io , a d 20,000 eache s a d ea ly 8,000 mili a y office s deemed oo wes e ized we e dismissed.244

By mid-1981 ma e s came o a head. A a emp by Khomei i o fo ge a eco cilia io be wee Ba isad a d IRP leade s had failed,245 a d ow i was Ba isad who was he allyi g poi fo all doub e s a d disside s of he heoc acy, i cludi g he MEK.246

Whe leade s of he Na io al F o called fo a demo s a io i Ju e 1981 i favo of Ba isad , Khomei i h ea e ed i s leade s wi h he dea h pe al y fo apos asy if hey did o epe .247 Leade s of he F eedom Moveme of I a we e compelled o make a d publicly b oadcas apologies fo suppo i g he F o 's appeal.247 Those a e di g he ally we e me aced by Hezbollahi a d Revolu io a y Gua ds a d i imida ed i o sile ce.248

O 28 Ju e 1981, a bombi g of he office of he IRP killed a ou d 70 high- a ki g officials, cabi e membe s a d membe s of pa liame , i cludi g Mohammad Behesh i, he sec e a y-ge e al of he pa y a d head of he Islamic Republic's judicial sys em. The gove me a es ed housa ds, a d he e we e hu d eds of execu io s agai s he MEK a d i s followe s.249 Despi e hese a d o he assassi a io s203 he hoped-fo mass up isi g a d a med s uggle agai s he Khomei iis s was c ushed.

I May 1979, he Fu qa G oup (Gu uh-i Fu qa ) assassi a ed a impo a lieu e a of Khomei i, Mo eza Mo ahha i.250

I e a io al impac edi

I e a io ally, he i i ial impac of he evolu io was imme se. I he o -Muslim wo ld, i cha ged he image of Islam, ge e a i g much i e es i Islam—bo h sympa he ic251 a d hos ile252—a d eve specula io ha he evolu io migh cha ge he wo ld bala ce of powe mo e ha a y poli ical eve si ce Hi le 's co ques of Eu ope.253

The Islamic Republic posi io ed i self as a evolu io a y beaco u de he sloga ei he Eas o Wes , o ly Islamic Republic (Na Sha q, Na Gha b, Faqa Jumhu i-e Islami, i.e. ei he Sovie o Ame ica Wes Eu opea models), a d called fo he ove h ow of capi alism, Ame ica i flue ce, a d social i jus ice i he Middle Eas a d he es of he wo ld. Revolu io a y leade s i I a gave a d sough suppo f om o -Muslim ac ivis s such as he Sa di is as i Nica agua, IRA i I ela d a d a i-apa heid s uggle i Sou h Af ica, i sofa as favo i g lef is evolu io a ies ove Islamis , bu ideologically diffe e a d s a egically ha mful causes, such as he eighbo i g Afgha Mujahidee .254 The evolu io i self was suppo ed by he Pales i e Libe a io O ga iza io .255 I e ms of fu u e eleva ce, he co flic s ha o igi a ed f om he I a ia Revolu io co i ued o defi e geo-poli ics fo he las h ee decades, co i ui g o do so oday.256

Pe sia Gulf a d he I a –I aq Wa edi

Suppo e s of he evolu io bo h wi hi a d ou side of I a bega calli g fo he ove h ow of mo a chies i he egio a d fo hem o be eplaced by Islamic epublics. This ala med ma y of I a 's eighbou s, pa icula ly Kuwai , I aq a d Saudi A abia as well as Wes e a io s depe de o Middle Eas e oil fo hei e e gy eeds.

I Sep embe 1980, I aq ook adva age of he feb ile si ua io a d i vaded I a . A he ce e of I aq's objec ives was he a exa io of he Eas Ba k of he Shaa Al-A ab wa e way ha makes up pa of he bo de be wee he wo a io s a d which had bee he si e of ume ous bo de ski mishes be wee he wo cou ies goi g back o he la e 1960s. The p eside of I aq, Saddam Hussei , also wa ed o a ex he I a ia p ovi ce of Khuzes a , subs a ially popula ed by I a ia A abs. The e was also co ce ha a Shia-ce ic evolu io i I a may s imula e a simila up isi g i I aq, whe e he cou y's Su i mi o i y uled ove he Shia majo i y.

Hussei was co fide ha wi h I aq's a med fo ces bei g well-equipped wi h ew ech ology a d wi h high mo ale would e joy a decisive s a egic adva age agai s a I a ia mili a y ha had ece ly had much of i s comma d office s pu ged followi g he Revolu io . I a was also s uggli g o fi d eplaceme pa s fo much of i s US- a d B i ish-supplied equipme . Hussei believed ha vic o y would he efo e come swif ly.

Howeve I a was galva ized257 by he i vasio a d he populace of I a allied behi d hei ew gove me i a effo o epel he i vade s. Af e some ea ly successes, he I aqi i vasio s alled a d was he epelled a d by 1982, I a had ecap u ed almos all of i s e i o ies. I Ju e 1982, wi h I aqi fo ces all bu expelled f om I a ia e i o y, he I aqi gove me offe ed a ceasefi e. This was ejec ed by Khomei i, who decla ed ha he o ly co di io fo peace was ha he egime i Baghdad mus fall a d mus be eplaced by a Islamic epublic.258

The wa would co i ue fo a o he six yea s du i g which ime cou ies like Saudi A abia, Kuwai a d o he Gulf s a es p ovided fi a cial assis a ce o I aq i a effo o p eve a I a ia vic o y, eve hough hei ela io s wi h I aq we e of e hos ile - Kuwai i self was i vaded by I aq wo yea s af e he peace ag eeme be wee I aq a d I a was sig ed.

Like he hos age c isis, he wa se ved i pa as a oppo u i y fo he gove me o s e g he evolu io a y a dou a d evolu io a y g oups;ci a io eeded he Revolu io a y Gua d a d commi ees a he expe se of i s emai i g allies- u ed-oppo e s, such as he MEK.259260 While e o mously cos ly a d des uc ive, he wa ejuve a ed he d ive fo a io al u i y a d Islamic evolu io a d i hibi ed f ac ious deba e a d dispu e i I a .261

Fo eig ela io sedi

The Islamic Republic of I a expe ie ced difficul ela io s wi h some Wes e cou ies, especially he U i ed S a es a d he Eas e Bloc a io s led by he Sovie U io . I a was u de co s a US u ila e al sa c io s, which we e igh e ed u de he p eside cy of Bill Cli o . B i ai suspe ded all diploma ic ela io s wi h I a a d did o e-ope hei embassy i Teh a u il 1988.262 Rela io s wi h he USSR became s ai ed as well af e he Sovie gove me co dem ed Khomei i's ep essio of ce ai mi o i ies af e he Revolu io .263

Fo Is ael, ela io s da es back o he Shah u il ela io s we e cu o 18 Feb ua y 1979 whe I a adop ed i s a i-Zio is s a ce. The fo me embassy i Teh a was ha ded ove o he PLO a d allied i self wi h seve al a i-Is aeli Islamis mili a g oups si ce.264

Af e he U.S. sa c io s we e igh e ed a d he collapse of he Sovie U io , he Russia Fede a io a d he People's Republic of Chi a became he mai p i cipal allies fo I a .265 Rela io s be wee he wo cou ies became imp oved af e Vladimi Pu i ook office i 2000 a d i c easi gly wa me i ece yea s followi g a i e a io al backlash ove he a exa io of C imea i 2014 which led o sa c io s by he Wes e powe s. Russia had sough I a o expa di g a ms ade ove he pas h ee decades especially wi h he coope a io wi h he Assad gove me du i g he Sy ia civil wa .266267 I a also bega i s eco omic coope a io wi h Chi a ha i cludes “poli ical, s a egic a d eco omic” compo e s be wee he wo a io s.268269270271272

I he Muslim wo ldedi

I he Muslim wo ld, pa icula ly i i s ea ly yea s, he evolu io i spi ed e o mous e husiasm a d edoubled opposi io o wes e impe ialism, i e ve io a d i flue ce. Islamis i su ge s ose i Saudi A abia (1979), Egyp (1981), Sy ia (1982), a d Leba o (1983).273

I Pakis a , i has bee o ed ha he p ess was la gely favo able owa ds he ew gove me ; he Islamis pa ies we e eve mo e e husias ic; while he ule , Ge e al Zia-ul-Haq, himself o a Islamiza io d ive si ce he ook powe i 1977, alked of simul a eous iumph of Islamic ideology i bo h ou cou ies a d ha Khomei i is a symbol of Islamic i su ge ce. Some Ame ica a alys s o ed ha , a his poi , Khomei i's i flue ce a d p es ige i Pakis a was g ea e ha Zia-ul-Haq's himself.274 Af e Khomei i claimed ha Ame ica s we e behi d he 1979 G a d Mosque seizu e, s ude p o es e s f om he Quaid-e-Azam U ive si y i Islamabad a acked he US embassy, se i g i o fi e a d aki g hos ages. While he c isis was quickly defused by he Pakis a mili a y, he ex day, befo e some 120 Pakis a i a my office s s a io ed i I a o he oad o hajj, Khomei i said i is a cause of joy ha … all Pakis a has ise agai s he U i ed S a es a d he s uggle is o ha of he US a d I a bu he e i e wo ld of disbelief a d he wo ld of Islam. Acco di g o jou alis Ya oslav T ofimov, he Pakis a i office s, ma y of whom had g adua ed f om Wes e mili a y academies, seemed swayed by he aya ollah’s i oxica i g wo ds.275

Ul ima ely o ly he Leba ese Islamis s succeeded. The Islamic evolu io a y gove me i self is c edi ed wi h helpi g es ablish Hezbollah i Leba o 276 a d he Sup eme Cou cil fo he Islamic Revolu io i I aq.

O he o he side of he ledge , a leas o e obse ve a gues ha despi e g ea effo a d expe se he o ly cou ies ou side I a he evolu io had a measu e of las i g i flue ce o a e Leba o a d I aq.277 O he s claim he devas a i g I a –I aq Wa mo ally wou ded ... he ideal of sp eadi g he Islamic evolu io ,184 o ha he Islamic Republic's pu sui of a ideological a he ha a a io alis , p agma ic fo eig policy has weake ed I a 's place as a g ea egio al powe .278

Domes ic impac edi

Views diffe o he impac of he evolu io .No e 8 Fo some i was he mos sig ifica , hopeful a d p ofou d eve i he e i e y of co empo a y Islamic his o y,280 while o he I a ia s believe ha he evolu io was a ime whe fo a few yea s we all los ou mi ds,281 a d which p omised us heave , bu ... c ea ed a hell o ea h.282

I e ally, I a has had some success i ece yea s i he b oade i g of educa io a d heal h ca e fo he poo , a d pa icula ly gove me al p omo io of Islam, a d he elimi a io of secula ism a d Ame ica i flue ce i gove me . C i icisms have bee aised wi h ega ds o poli ical f eedom, gove me al ho es y a d efficie cy, eco omic equali y a d self-sufficie cy, o eve popula eligious devo io .283284 Opi io polls a d obse ve s epo widesp ead dissa isfac io , i cludi g a if be wee he evolu io a y ge e a io a d you ge I a ia s who fi d i impossible o u de s a d wha hei pa e s we e so passio a e abou .285 To ho o he 40 h a ive sa y of evolu io a ou d 50,000 p iso e s we e fo give by o de Ali Khame ei o eceive Islamic cleme cy.286287288 Ma y eligious mi o i ies such as Ch is ia s, Baháʼís, Jews a d Zo oas ia s have lef si ce he Islamic Revolu io of 1979.289290

Huma developme edi

Li e acy has co i ued o i c ease u de he Islamic Republic.291292 By 2002, illi e acy a es d opped by mo e ha half.293294 Ma e al a d i fa mo ali y a es have also bee cu sig ifica ly.295 Popula io g ow h was fi s e cou aged, bu discou aged af e 1988.296 Ove all, I a 's Huma developme I dex a i g has climbed sig ifica ly f om 0.569 i 1980 o 0.732 i 2002, o a pa wi h eighbou i g Tu key.297298 I he la es HDI, howeve , I a has si ce falle 8 a ks below Tu key.299

Poli ics a d gove me edi

I a has elec ed gove me al bodies a he a io al, p ovi cial, a d local levels. Al hough hese bodies a e subo di a e o heoc acy – which has ve o powe ove who ca u fo pa liame (o Islamic Co sul a ive Assembly) a d whe he i s bills ca become law – hey have mo e powe ha equivale o ga s i he Shah's gove me .

I a 's Su i mi o i y (abou 8%) has see some u es .300 Five of he 290 pa liame a y sea s a e alloca ed o hei commu i ies.301

The membe s of he Baháʼí Fai h have bee decla ed he e ical a d subve sive.302 While pe secu io occu ed befo e he Revolu io si ce he mo e ha 200 Baháʼís have bee execu ed o p esumed killed, a d ma y mo e have bee imp iso ed, dep ived of jobs, pe sio s, busi esses, a d educa io al oppo u i ies. Baháʼí holy places have bee co fisca ed, va dalized, o des oyed. Mo e ece ly, Baháʼís i I a have bee dep ived of educa io a d wo k. Seve al housa d you g Baháʼís be wee he ages of 17 a d 24 have bee expelled f om u ive si ies.

Whe he he Islamic Republic has b ough mo e o less seve e poli ical ep essio is dispu ed. G umbli g o ce do e abou he y a y a d co up io of he Shah a d his cou is ow di ec ed agai s he Mullahs.303 Fea of SAVAK has bee eplaced by fea of Revolu io a y Gua ds, a d o he eligious evolu io a y e fo ce s.206 Viola io s of huma igh s by he heoc a ic gove me is said o be wo se ha du i g he mo a chy,304 a d i a y case ex emely g ave.305 Repo s of o u e, imp iso me of disside s, a d he mu de of p omi e c i ics have bee made by huma igh s g oups. Ce so ship is ha dled by he Mi is y of Cul u e a d Islamic Guida ce, wi hou whose official pe missio , o books o magazi es a e published, o audio apes a e dis ibu ed, o movies a e show a d o cul u al o ga iza io is es ablished. Me a d wome a e o allowed o da ce o swim wi h each o he .306

Wome edi

Th oughou he begi i g of he 20 h ce u y a d p io o he evolu io , ma y wome leade s eme ged a d dema ded basic social igh s fo wome .307 Du i g he eig of Reza Shah, he gove me ma da ed he emoval of he veil a d p omo ed he educa io of you g gi ls.307 Howeve , he push-back of he Shii cle ics made p og ess difficul , a d he gove me had o co ai i s p omo io of basic wome 's igh s o he o ms of he pa ia chal social hie a chy i o de o accommoda e he cle ics.307 Af e he abdica io of Reza Shah i 1941, he discipli e of he gove me dec eased, a d wome we e able o fu he exe cise hei igh s, i cludi g he abili y o wea he veil if hey wa ed.307 Mo e o ga iza io of wome 's g oups occu ed i he 1960s a d 70s, a d hey used he gove me 's mode iza io o defi e a d advoca e fo wome 's issues.307 Du i g hese decades, wome became ac ive i fo me ly male domai s such as he pa liame , he cabi e , a med fo ces, legal p ofessio s, a d fields of scie ce a d ech ology.307 Addi io ally, wome achieved he igh o vo e i 1963.307 Ma y of hese achieveme s a d igh s ha I a ia wome had gai ed i he decades leadi g up o he evolu io we e eve sed by he Islamic Revolu io .307

The evolu io a y gove me ew o e laws i a a emp o fo ce wome o leave he wo kfo ce by p omo i g he ea ly e i eme of female gove me employees, he closi g of childca e ce e s, e fo ci g full Islamic cove i offices a d public places, as well as p eve i g wome f om s udyi g i 140 fields i highe educa io .307 Wome fough back agai s hese cha ges, a d as ac ivis a d w i e Mah az Afkhami w i es, The egime succeeded i pu i g wome back i he veil i public places, bu o i esocializi g hem i o fu dame alis o ms.307 Af e he evolu io , wome of e had o wo k ha d o suppo hei families as he pos - evolu io a y eco omy suffe ed.307 Wome also asse ed hemselves i he a s, li e a u e, educa io , a d poli ics.307

Wome – especially hose f om adi io al backg ou ds – pa icipa ed o a la ge scale i demo s a io s leadi g up o he evolu io .308 They we e e cou aged by Aya ollah Khomei i o joi him i ove h owi g he Pahlavi dy as y.177 Howeve , mos of hese wome expec ed he evolu io o lead o a i c ease i hei igh s a d oppo u i ies a he ha he es ic io s ha ac ually occu ed.177 The policy e ac ed by he evolu io a y gove me a d i s a emp s o limi he igh s of wome we e challe ged by he mobiliza io a d poli iciza io of wome ha occu ed du i g a d af e he evolu io .177 Wome 's esis a ce i cluded emai i g i he wo k fo ce i la ge umbe s a d challe gi g Islamic d ess by showi g hai u de hei head sca ves.177 The I a ia gove me has had o eco side a d cha ge aspec s of i s policies owa ds wome because of hei esis a ce o laws ha es ic hei igh s.177

Si ce he evolu io , u ive si y e ollme a d he umbe of wome i he civil se vice a d highe educa io has ise .No e 9 a d seve al wome have bee elec ed o he I a ia pa liame .

Homo**7**uali yedi

Homo**7**uali y has a lo g his o y i p e-mode I a . Sex us Empi icus asse s i his Ou li es of Scep icism (w i e ci ca C.E. 200) ha he laws of he Pa hia Empi e we e ole a owa ds homo**7**ual behaviou , a d Pe sia me we e k ow o i dulge i i e cou se wi h males. (1:152)310 These a cie p ac ices co i ued i o he Islamic pe iod of I a , wi h o e schola o i g how ...homo**7**uali y a d homoe o ic exp essio s we e ole a ed i ume ous public places, f om mo as e ies a d semi a ies o ave s, mili a y camps, ba hhouses a d coffee houses. I he ea ly Safavid e a (1501-1723), male houses of p os i u io (ama d kha eh) we e legally ecog ized a d paid axes.311: 157  I was du i g he la e Qaja pe iod ha followi g mode iza io he socie y was he e o o malized.312 Du i g he eig of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, a faux same-**7** weddi g occu ed be wee wo you g me wi h ies o he oyal cou , which became a sou ce of shame a d ou age fo some ci ize s a d was u ilized by Islamis s as fu he evide ce of he immo al mo a chy. This also ied he mo a chy o he Wes , which had begu o be ega ded i eac io a y Islamic discou se as immo al due o ...female udi y a d ope adul male homo**7**uali y..311: 161 

Whe Ruhollah Khomei i came o powe i 1979, he called fo homo**7**uals o be ex e mi a ed,313 a d o e of his fi s poli ical ac io s was o i s i u e imp iso me , co po al pu ishme , a d he dea h pe al y fo a y **7**ual ac s ou side adi io al Islamic he e o**7**ual ma iage. I a 1979 i e view wi h The New Yo k Times, a jou alis asked Khomei i o jus ify he s a e-sa c io ed shoo i gs of homo**7**uals. I eply Khomei i compa ed hem as well as o he adul e e s o ga g e e, hieves, a d mu de e s.314

I a is cu e ly o e of he wo ld's o ly ju isdic io s o ac ively execu e gay me .315316317 Am es y I e a io al epo s ha app oxima ely 5,000 gays have bee execu ed i I a si ce he evolu io , i cludi g wo gay me execu ed i 2014, bo h ha ged fo e gagi g i co se sual homo**7**ual ela io s.318

Eco omyedi

I a 's pos - evolu io a y eco omy has a sig ifica s a e-ow ed o pa as a al sec o , i cludi g busi esses ow ed by he Revolu io a y Gua ds a d Bo yad fou da io s.319320

Si ce he evolu io I a 's GDP (PPP) has g ow f om $114 billio i 1980 o $858 billio i 2010.321 GDP pe capi a (PPP) has g ow f om $4,295 i 1980 o $11,396 i 2010.321

Si ce he evolu io I a 's GDP (Nomi al) has g ow f om $90.392 billio i 1979 o $385.874 i 2015.322 GDP pe capi a ( omi al) has g ow f om $2290 i 1979 o $5470 i 2016.323 Real GNI pe capi a i 2011 co s a i e a io al dolla s dec eased af e he evolu io a d du i g he I a -I aq wa f om $7762 i 1979 o $3699 a he e d of he wa i 1989. Af e h ee decades of eco s uc io a d g ow h si ce he , i has o ye eached i s 1979 level a d has o ly ecove ed o $6751 i 2016.324 Da a o GNI pe capi a i PPP e ms is o ly available si ce 1990 globally. I PPP e ms, GNI pe capi a has i c eased f om I . $11,425 i 1990 o I . $18,544 i 2016. Bu mos of his i c ease ca be a ibu ed o he ise i oil p ices i he 2000s.325

The value of I a 's cu e cy decli ed p ecipi ously af e he evolu io . Whe eas o 15 Ma ch 1978, 71.46 ials equaled o e U.S. dolla , i Ja ua y 2018, 44,650 ials amou ed o o e dolla .326

The eco omy has become sligh ly mo e dive sified si ce he evolu io , wi h 80% of I a ia GDP depe de o oil a d gas as of 2010,327 compa i g o above 90% a he e d of he Pahlavi pe iod.ci a io eeded The Islamic Republic lags some cou ies i a spa e cy a d ease of doi g busi ess acco di g o i e a io al su veys. T a spa e cy I e a io al a ked I a 136 h ou of 175 cou ies i a spa e cy (i.e. lack of co up io ) fo i s 2014 i dex;319 a d he IRI was a ked 130 h ou of he 189 cou ies su veyed i he Wo ld Ba k 2015 Doi g Busi ess Repo .328

Islamic poli ical cul u eedi

I is said ha he e we e a emp s o i co po a e mode poli ical a d social co cep s i o Islamic ca o si ce 1950. The a emp was a eac io o he secula poli ical discou se amely Ma xism, libe alism a d a io alism. Followi g he dea h of Aya ollah Bo ouje di, some of he schola s like Mu aza Mu ahha i, Muhammad Behesh i a d Mahmoud Talegha i fou d ew oppo u i y o cha ge co di io s. Befo e hem, Bo ouje di was co side ed a co se va ive Ma ja. They ied o efo m co di io s af e he dea h of he aya ollah. They p ese ed hei a gume s by e de i g lec u es i 1960 a d 1963 i Teh a . The esul of he lec u es was he book A i qui y i o p i ciples of Ma 'jaiya . Some of he majo issues highligh ed we e he gove me i Islam, he eed fo he cle gy's i depe de fi a cial o ga iza io , Islam as a way of life, advisi g a d guidi g you h a d ecessi y of bei g commu i y. Allameh Taba abei efe s o velaya as a poli ical philosophy fo Shia a d velaya faqih fo Shia commu i y. The e a e also o he a emp s o fo mula e a ew a i ude of Islam such as he publica io of h ee volumes of Mak ab Tashayyo. Also some believe ha i is i dispe sable o evive he eligious ga he ed i Hosey iyeh-e-E shad.329

Galle yedi

A i ju ed evolu io a y du i g p o es s agai s Pahlavi egime.

P o es s i summe 1978.

Revolu io a y vic ims.

Cu e I a ia leade , Ali Khame ei i a Revolu io a y p o es i Mashhad.

Shah visi i g Bakh ia cabi e befo e his exi f om I a .

People celeb a i g Shah's exi f om he cou y.

Removal of Shah's s a ue by he people i U ive si y of Teh a .

Khomei i a Meh abad Ai po .

People accompa yi g Khomei i f om Meh abad o Behesh Zah a.

Khomei i i Behesh Zah a.

Khomei i befo e a speech a Alavi school.

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